An Aesthetic Philosophy of Librarianship

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An Aesthetic Philosophy of Librarianship:
Reflections on Library Goodness in the Digital Age

The role of the academic librarian is to create content-rich learning environments (“libraries”) that stimulate scholarship, cultivate knowledge and inspire creativity.


Prologue. Many years ago, I went for a job interview for a Technical Services / Systems Librarian position at a community college library 10 minutes from my home in suburb on the far southeast side of Houston.

I thought I had a good chance at it. I have an ALA-accredited Master’s degree in Library and Information Science (commonly abbreviated MLS or MLIS) from a top-ranked school and years of professional experience in libraries. I know basic programming (C++, VB, Perl, SQL, JavaScript, CSS and HTML) and a flavor of Unix (Solaris) upon which many library systems run–or used to run, at least, as today most are hosted.

At that time, I had more than a few years of experience as a Technical Services Librarian, Digital Services Librarian, Head Cataloger and Automation Librarian for a large school district, Collection Development Manager and technical consultant for a commercial digital library (the first large-scale online undergraduate library, modeled after Harvard’s Lamont Library), Library Director of a new Art Institute campus, “Data Standards Manager” for the Museum of Fine Arts Houston, and “Client Relationship Manager” for a popular and powerful federated search / discovery application whose technology was used by EBSCO and Gale (among the largest academic content aggregators and database vendors in the world). I have been a Systems and Digital Services Librarian for a Graduate Theological Seminary with five campuses. I am a Certified Information Professional (CIP) through AIIM. In addition to all that, I have many hours of post-graduate work in English, Philosophy, History and Art History along with courses in Computer Science, Business and MIS.

Having worked for the last 18 months as a “Project Manager / Corporate Librarian” for a telecommunications billing software and engineering company two hours commute from home, on an automation project that was rapidly coming to an end–and seeing no new projects on the horizon because the Houston office was being converted to a Data/Network Operations Center–I was eager for the chance at a stable position where I could put my technical, academic and library skills to use. 

The day of the job interview at the college arrived. To my surprise, especially since I was interviewing for a technical position, I was asked to share with the search committee my “Philosophy of Librarianship.” This was one of a few questions asked during the interview, none of which had to do with anything technical (“technical services” in libraries entails management of cataloging and patron records, the library automation system, reporting services, the proxy server, discovery tools, electronic resources and the website). 

Hmm. Ask me about my experiences with library systems or digital libraries or discovery tools, metadata or web services, MARC records or metadata, and I might have something to say. Ask me to define “responsive web design” or explain what a proxy server does. Ask me something technical.

But my “Philosophy of Librarianship”?

I had nothing, and whatever I thought to say in that moment I feared would come across as disingenuous. Actually, I was having a hard time even relating a philosophy to the job description. What were the possible correct responses? I feared I had simply missed something, having worked outside of libraries for a few years.

The Public Services Librarian who posed the question indignantly poked me: “What, are we librarians just circling the drain?” 

As far as I was concerned, I would be there to fill a specific role involving access to electronic resources, systems, the website, servers and records. I was offering my skills to solve problems. I didn’t see how my personal librarian philosophy, whatever that might be, even related to the job. 

Since that time, I have discovered that the question is not such an unusual one in the library world. Academic librarians of all types, both in public and technical services, are being asked to provide a philosophy of library practice in job interviews or as part of their performance review process. These days, they may even need to provide one to keep their jobs. 

By Googling “philosophy of librarianship,” as I did when I got home that afternoon, you can pull up this page from the USC Library,1 for example, which states that one’s philosophy of librarianship can give one an advantage over others in terms of hiring and promotion:

At academic research institutions (such as ours at USC) librarians are being held accountable, more than ever before, to provide solid evidence of the quality of their work, and of their impact on the mission of both their institution and their library.

Though, in many cases, our annual reviews are summative and evaluative, at time of promotion and continuing appointment (or tenure) the expectation . . . is that we present for their review our reflective (formative) assessment of our work . . . as well as our understanding of the value and purpose of our essential role as academic librarians in a research university.

Such an assessment can be first formulated in our Statement of Philosophy of Academic Librarianship. This is a relatively new concept in the field of librarianship and it has, as its precedent, the Teaching Philosophy Statement which is a “personal mission statement” for those committed to teaching. That Statement demonstrates one’s reflective thinking about teaching. It helps communicate one’s goals as a teacher, and one’s commitment to students’ learning outcomes based on their corresponding actions and activities, in and out of the classroom (See Seldin et al., 2010).

A Statement of Philosophy of Academic Librarianship presents a capsule summary of your understanding of the value and purpose of your role as an academic librarian in a research university. . . It gains an advantage over others for promotion or for a new position.

Whenever one is asked to justify one’s value in some sort of formalized statement, it is never a good thing. It means that your value to the organization is not obvious.

Whenever this happens, no philosophy or explanation is likely to change anyone’s mind:


Nonetheless, this trend of self-justification in academic librarianship has become so pervasive, that librarians are even posting them on their personal websites. 

Now that I work in an academic library again, and have for many years, I find myself thinking about philosophies of librarianship at this uncertain time when many both outside and within the library profession are proclaiming libraries, librarians, or print books (“pbooks”) to be obsolete.2  

Many college and academic libraries are getting rid of print altogether 3 4 5 6 7 while erecting new libraries, 21st century architectural wonders consisting of collaborative and innovative work spaces, video conference rooms, meeting rooms, and high-tech classrooms, sometimes resembling more a modern open office space than a library.

Across the country, colleges and universities are spending millions to create modern spaces, variously called “new libraries” or “learning centers,” or “library learning centers,” for students to study, socialize, drink coffee and learn in a more collaborative, interactive and personalized fashion. In a library setting, collaborative learning, where students work together as a team to solve problems, or come together to share their knowledge with each other–emulating some idealized vision of the project-driven, team-oriented business world8-is fostered at the expense of collections when it comes to the allocation of space and funding for these new facilities. 

New libraries are popping up everywhere. Should librarians be cheering?

Within these new libraries, such as this one from the feature photo from the Jan/Feb. 2020 issue of American Libraries, “Show Us Your Beautiful Library,”9 one might imagine that it would be difficult for librarians who work there to place value on reading or publications in any format (including online).

Despite being heralded as a new 21st century learning environment, it might be harder for librarians to encourage the sort of learning we have always encouraged through engagement with our resources.

Even though the building may have been designed to utilize the most up-to-date technologies, it may be more challenging within the context of these new centers to effectively deploy new technologies to put new titles in front of users, or place titles into a disciplinary context to enhance their relevance to users.

Despite their bright colors and modern, airy designs, the new library facility might also seem less inspiring to students, even as a place to study, when compared to a library with visible contents.10 11

I am willing to concede that the traditional academic library, our “old library service model,” may no longer be viable. Just as many are rethinking education, and how technology plays into it, so too, libraries have been the subject of reinvention, experimentation, virtualization and frankly, elimination, over the last twenty years.

Many both inside and outside the library profession regard “booklessness”bookless is what is called a library that goes all-digital–as forward-thinking and progressiveIn a 2011 commentary in The Chronicle of Higher Education, author and speaker Marc Prensky, who has written books on education reform, proposed an outright ban on print books at the university, arguing that such drastic measures are necessary to move education forward into the 21st century.12 I’ve discovered that this idea that the elimination of books in itself constitutes a form of progress, is a fairly common one, or at least, something I have heard repeated at my own university when it was constructing a new library that was predominantly bookless. 

It isn’t an over attachment to the print format, or job security, or technophobia, as some undoubtedly think, which causes librarians such as myself to question the strategy of full-on booklessness for a college or academic library at this time, especially one with programs in English literature, creative writing, art, communications, journalism, history, music, history, education and the social sciences (disciplines where the book format is still integral to scholarly communication), and with large populations of undergraduates attending on campus. I might add that defending print can be risky business these days, or politically disadvantageous, for it goes against trends to improve libraries by re-purposing stack space to open study space, and sometimes by eliminating or defunding print altogether, in order to realize some progressive ideal of what a modern library ought to be, which, of course, is paperless. 

While the landscape and priorities for college and academic libraries are rapidly changing, there are many reasons for college libraries to not go fully digital at this time (2020), reasons which have nothing to do with preference for a particular reading format. I will begin this lengthy disquisition with the usual caveat that every library is different, and not every library will have need for print materials, or books–some professional libraries are all ejournals–but that, for many libraries, defunding print is not the no-brainer people might assume it to be.

One important issue for me, perhaps the most important one, is that the technology is not available yet to afford users with a really great online library experience, especially when it comes to ebooks. Through the academic library systems we have available to us,13 ebooks cannot be ordered into virtual stacks for browsing. Our systems are fine for item retrieval, especially known item retrieval, and also for locating physical books on shelves, but, rather astonishingly, they do not support browsing a library collection.

The user experience of browsing curated collections is the optimal user experience of an academic library. Understandably, the word “curated” may rub people the wrong way, or strike a nerve, come across as condescending, especially in this age of relevance-ranking; but what I mean by it is the Latin sense, “cared for.” The scholar at heart will do. Cared for collections have a quality of intentionality to them. Intentionality means that a conscious entity intended the title to be there, that is was not an accident. A good collection is a service we provide to the academic community, and it also demonstrates our respect for the academic disciplines we support. Cared for collections have a purpose, a consistency and a logic to them which makes them enjoyable and meaningful for scholars to browse.

It means, in practicality, that we do not end up with books about an author whose works we do not have in our collection, or the lesser works of an author without representing the most important ones, or no critical editions of important authors; or two volumes out of a three volume set, or large numbers of foreign imprints, say, on “leading organisational change in Australian hospitals,” or other oddball titles which have no bearing on anything the school teaches or interest to the student body. It means we do not buy only from one preferred publisher, but none from their rivals. It means we strive to keep our collections up to date all the time, not just before an accreditation review; and the have selection tools at our disposal both to know what we should acquire, and the ability to promote new acquisitions to faculty. It means we don’t have Hegel without Kant. It means if we have Adorno, we also have Habermas and Marcuse.

It means we arrange materials and present them in a way that contributes value and reflects the discipline itself, in order by subject classification, not in any order which might be more convenient to the shelver or the system.  

It means, as part of a graphical user interface, if one were to be developed, we make the author, title, year of publication and the publisher visible in an immediate way, so scholars can quickly evaluate the quality and currency of the book.

It means users might anticipate what will be there with some degree of accuracy and can come to depend on the library to keep them up to date. New titles are consistently being added and titles at the end of their lifecycles are being weeded. Good library collections are not ad hoc or random titles, or content which vendors can no longer monetize in print. Rather, they objectively reflect and represent scholarly activity in the disciplines. They are what comprises the discipline or culture at this particular point and time. It is our responsibility as academic librarians to care for the collections which have been entrusted to us, know something about the titles that are contained in them, and about the publishing activity in the disciplines.

This means we must be able to assess the collection though systematic means to determine how well we are serving our users in different areas, assess what subjects are of most interest to them, compare ourselves to peer libraries and outstanding title lists, determine gaps in the collection, and identify our relative strengths and weaknesses. 

Quality collections are what defines the library as a library. By placing quality collections in front of users in a way that can be visually navigated and easily browsed, and in ways that reflect activity in the discipline, users are more likely to find something they like, something meaningful, something significant, and something interesting, and oftentimes, something completely unexpected.

This is how academic libraries stimulate intellectual inquiry.

With bookless libraries, however, the collection is visible only through what librarians refer to as “discovery,” a search engine, which is to say, it isn’t visible as a collection at all. I believe this lack of visibility of collections is a very serious problem facing libraries. If we cannot see or visualize the collection, we cannot effectively manage it. If users cannot see the collection, they will not value the work of librarians, or benefit from the learning opportunities or inspiration that a good collection provides.

While some have speculated that research libraries today have no need to support browsing or even collections anymore, and that conspectus, collections and browsing have been made obsolete through a combination of search, “big deals” and PDA,14 to me it is not a good thing, a sign of progress, that the user experience of the academic library in the 21st century has been functionally reduced only to search, and what is being searched is looking less like a library collection and more like a random aggregation of academic content which cannot be easily reassembled into a collection for browsing or assessment.

Since it is not supported by our systems, but this approach was at one time the standard one for academic libraries, some libraries have set out to develop their own collection assessment tools using external databases.15 As I will discuss below, the Conspectus, a mapping of titles by LC classification to the disciplines supported, has been successfully employed in academic libraries for years. The challenge we face, both with supporting browsing and collection assessment, are the flip side of the same coin, and could be remedied through enhancements made to one field in the bibliographic record, the LCC Number, and making this a mandatory field. 

Discovery, the library’s search application, which searches to totality of the library’s owned and subscribed content regardless of format, is truly a wonderful thing. But realistically, as a search engine, it hasn’t made much of an impact. (No one outside of the library world even uses the term “discovery.”) It hasn’t made libraries more competitive, attractive or valuable to scholars. We know this because our users generally prefer to bypass the library’s discovery interface or website (depending on the method of authentication supported by the library) and go directly to the specialized databases and journals we license on their behalf. Once users figure out the platform where their journal or preferred content resides, and that they can get to full-text through single sign on (authentication on the site itself), we tend to lose them. Sure, we can legitimately claim this usage for our own library, but our users don’t seem to need us much. On publisher and aggregator platforms, researchers are often afforded a better, more immediate, and more robust, discipline-specific search experience, and users have greater confidence that their search has been exhaustive, thorough and current. Through discovery alone, we are not giving users a compelling reason to come to the library or to the library’s website. 

Indeed, numerous studies over the years have revealed that neither librarians nor its users even like or trust discovery interfaces, and for many reasons not having to do with the need for more library instruction, prefer to go directly to the publisher’s platform to conduct research.16 The second place they like to go is Google Scholar, where they can search citations from university repositories, open access repositories, academic publisher platforms, as well as the library’s subscribed content–and then link to full-text that way.

It is time that library system user interfaces presented users with a unique and inviting experience, not just a generic search experience, for we will never be competitive against publishers (or Google Scholar) in the area of “search.” This means supporting browsing, affording users the opportunity to visually navigate and engage with good collections. Yes, we need to make our collections visible again! In an online environment, we need to make usage more visible to scholars (that is, make visible how many times scholars have downloaded the title) because in academia, just as outside it, use by others compels interest; people naturally want to read what other people are reading so they are not left behind. We must put the library and scholarship back into the academic research library through better user interfaces which support collection browsing and collection analysis.

Our purpose as academic librarians is to maintain and promote quality collections which reflect scholarly communication in the disciplines, not just to provide seamless access to subscribed content. The same metadata which supports patron browsing is also a prerequisite for librarians to properly evaluate and assess the quality of the collection. Indeed, a standard approach to collection management in academic librarianship since the 1980s has been through a collection conspectus, mapping the collections by call number ranges to the disciplines supported by the institution, and mapping these to usage. Even though it relies upon LCC, Library of Congress Classification, the conspectus was recognized as a standard tool for describing, assessing and evaluating academic library collections, even around the world.17 Collection Development policies, particularly at universities, were based on a conspectus approach. The Library of Congress still uses a conspectus approach, and it is still recommended by IFLA. OCLC currently owns the last version of the RLG/WLN Conspectus, which they call “CES,” but it is not too difficult to create them from scratch using the LCC schedule to make one’s own collection map.

Without a conspectus, or a collection map, as some refer to it, it is hard to do strategic collection development. Today, libraries can run usage reports to evaluate journals usage, platform usage, books usage, and database usage. But we cannot evaluate the quality or depth or usage of our collections as collections–by discipline, division, category, subjects–because our systems do not support this. Sadly, we cannot easily generate a simple list of all of our books and ebooks combined, let alone do analysis by classification. 

As mentioned earlier, people seem to be going to great lengths to develop their own collection maps, either applying traditional conspectus divisions as their starting point18 or simply trying to generate a shelf list of both print and ebooks by classification and then adding visualizations to answer questions about the collection, such as usage by subject area.19 An outcome of Johnson and Traill’s efforts at the University of Minnesota was an integrated browse tool for both ebooks and print resources, which was not previously possible because of missing LC classification data in the 050 fields of the MARC bibliographic record.

With the shift from print to e-resources, and the restructuring of systems away from the traditional bibliographic approaches, our systems no longer support the traditional methods and analytical approaches librarians commonly applied to collections to evaluate them. Using the most advanced system, I can run analytics to evaluate usage of a vendor package of aggregated academic titles of ebooks, for example, but I cannot tell which topics are being requested more frequently, identify superseded titles, identify subject areas that have aged materials, assess gaps in the collection, compare my library’s collections with peers, or compare them against outstanding titles lists. 

Making collections visible as collections should be a priority for library system developers and our user interfaces, especially as libraries are becoming fully digital and the collection is currently not visible any other way.

At this point, many academic library interfaces have become mere record retrieval tools, more specifically, a searchable index of the metadata of third-party (publisher and aggregator) content to which the library is entitled, with some of our own (mainly print, sometimes ebook) records added into the mix. Publishers place a file of the library’s entitlements into a central discovery index where they become immediately accessible to users upon activation. With the growing trend toward booklessness, users experience the totality of the academic library’s often vast holdings and entitlements through the narrow window of the library’s discovery interface.

Indeed, students are likely to encounter this same user interface at almost every medium to large academic library in the US:

Results display page of Alma, the most widely used academic library system software in the world. Even as libraries move towards fully digital collections, discovery is all it does. The result is that library collections lack sufficient visibility and intentionality (no one knows if the book was deliberately selected for inclusion or if is was part of a vendor package). Lack of intentionality and collection visibility are two unfortunate side-effects of going fully digital.

Granted, there is a kind of magic to its ability to search across so many different sources, publishers and media types in one fell swoop, which is precisely what it was designed to do. Looking for articles has become a snap. It is convenient for us and for them. When we purchase an ebook, it can be made immediately available in discovery without needing to catalog it. A record, albeit perfunctory and inadequate by descriptive cataloging standards, is placed put into our systems upon activation of the resource.

Through discovery, librarians can acquire and immediately make available entire packages of aggregated content, bundled (or selective) packages of ebooks and e-journals containing thousands of titles, without much effort. Selection and deselection, additions and deletions, are now handled automatically by the vendor, offering certain advantages (namely, scalability) and efficiencies to libraries, especially those with a lot of buying power. For the most part, we have been liberated from the tedious work of actually managing our collections and our metadata, and from the necessity of engaging with books. The modern library is like an ecommerce business that drop ships its product, but without the need for marketing.

The downside of discovery, particularly when the print collection is all but eliminated, is that it is just a search tool, not an online library. The experience it affords users is generic. Even as a search tool, it is limited, for it searches only metadata, not the books or documents themselves, and is dependent upon publisher agreements and contributions to keep it current. It typically allows users to view only 10 items at a time.

It doesn’t do anything to establish the library as a unique experience, to stimulate inquiry or resource use, to promote books or reading, or to place books and journals into their appropriate scholarly or intellectual context. It also doesn’t expose people to new ideas, to unthought thoughts, to the things they would not otherwise go looking for, or might not know how to search for. 

The ebooks in the bookless library cannot be browsed in the way print collections could, in call number order. What we offer now falls short of both professional library standards of the presentation and organization of bibliographic materials, as well as industry standards for e-commerce to market products online. A bookseller or publisher would never use search alone as its user interface with customers, and if it did, it would not limit users to a view of ten items at a time, but present 50 or 80 items in order to increase the likelihood users find something they might like.

Another limitation with our user interfaces, which also impacts library marketing, is that it is incumbent upon our users to periodically come along and perform searches to discover what new items have been added to them, for we have no systematic way to promote new and significant titles in the disciplines. Showcasing what is new, topical and current is another business requirement libraries have in order to remain relevant to our users. Our discovery UIs do not currently support new title lists. Our systems used to be able to do this.

Another challenge with ebooks has to do with the spare metadata being placed into our systems. The MARC records for ebooks, which libraries acquire in large numbers in bulk packages often lack library-centric bibliographic metadata, specifically LC classification and LC subject headings. As publishers and aggregators are looking to streamline their own workflows, they are attempting to define the minimal metadata for ebooks20 to a few data elements which very fall far short of the national standards for descriptive cataloging for books which libraries adhere to, the MARC 21 bibliographic format.21Of course, libraries are free to enhance and load their own cataloging records, but even then, if they go to the trouble of adding classification to the 050 fields of ebook records as some have done, our systems still do not support browsing by classification.

At this point, I have probably beaten this topic to death, that library systems are not ready to support booklessness, because of their inability to support browsing and collection management. With the consolidation in the industry, it is really hard to tell cause from effect. Ebooks often lack good metadata, and even if this problem were remedied, our systems would need to develop new user interfaces to support collection browsing. Contrarily, if systems supported browsing, vendors would probably make it a priority to ensure LCC numbers were assigned.

Another issue with booklessness is the high cost of academic ebook titles compared to print. For libraries, academic ebook titles are much more expensive than list price for print, some reported to be up to 150 times list price for simultaneous multi-user access.22 Small and mid-sized campus libraries, if they select titles individually or are keen to provide their users with in-demand (front list) titles, are not likely to realize any cost savings by going fully digital. Our pricing tends to be supersized, as we often pay for unlimited access, in perpetuity, whether we want it that way or not. The cost for an academic library to warehouse a book23 on a shelf is really trivial compared to licensing and hosting fees for an ebook. With a small library budget, I can acquire so much more in print, often with considerable discounts, than by going with the electronic version of the same. Another problem is publisher embargoes, the fact that the ebook is sometimes unavailable to be licensed by libraries until weeks after it appears in print.

Studies by librarians on the value of ebooks compared to print have not corroborated assumptions that ebooks actually save the library money. Yet, decision-makers outside of the library often believe the university will save money by cheaper book prices and also no longer needing to warehouse books on its shelves, and perhaps, although they do not say this, no longer needing staff to catalog, circulate and re-shelve them.

Aside from being much more expensive, ebooks cannot be shared among institutions like print, and, as with much of our digital content, they are not accessible to those who are not currently enrolled in a course or affiliated with the university. If the mission of the academic research library is to support life-long learning, as is often stated, why should the holdings of the academic library be inaccessible to alumni? Why should doctors, after graduating from medical school, no longer have access to a good academic library? If our mission is to support scholarship, why not continue to provide access to ebooks and ejournals to scholars outside of the university? The simple answer is that if we did so, we would be in violation of our license agreements with vendors. We never had these restrictions before, when we were predominantly print collections. When we bought the book or journal subscription, we owned it: “fair use” and copyright governed our policies, not vendor license agreements. 

With print, academic libraries provided public access to books and journals. We provided access to all scholars who came into the library, regardless of enrollment status or institutional affiliation. Public access to academic library collections was never an issue before our collections went digital. Academic librarians always served students who attended other schools, people who needed to do research for a project for their jobs, journalists, grant writers, artists, museum professionals, high school students, writers and independent researchers, lawyers, business people and entrepreneurs. (Outsiders were never beating down our doors, and it was kind of exciting to assist someone with a real world project for a change.) In the transition to becoming fully digital, many academic libraries have been forced, because of vendor license agreements and single sign on protocols, to restrict access only to those with current institutional affiliation. Our facilities may be open to the public, but our resources are not. (Every library will need to decide for themselves who is a “visiting scholar.”)

Finally, another challenge with the policy of booklessness at this time is that students who attend on campus, those who desire to have the full college experience instead of the convenience of an online degree, still expect to see books and current titles in their campus libraries. They feel that the library with books provides a higher level of service, a more vibrant and meaningful experience than online access alone.  

To prospective students and their parents, a physical collection is perceived to have higher value and signify greater investment by the university than an online collection. Good physical collections convey greater personal investment and expertise by the staff. When there is a physical library, students and faculty believe that the library staff are knowledgeable about the collection. However, they do not have the same high opinion of librarians once the collection goes online, even if librarians are reading reviews and continuing to do title-by-title selection just as before, adding our contributions on top of bid deal packages. Indeed, acquiring a worthy book can feel like throwing a starfish back into the ocean.[For the famous Starfish Story, go here:] If the collection is not visible, the work of librarians is not visible either. 

When touring campus, people judge the library, its librarians, and faculty–indeed, the entire institution–by the collections they can see. Of course, students want and need electronic databases for paper writing, research and assignment completion, but they also want a library with new (and old) books. They want to see and experience the books that other educated people know about and value. They believe, as do their parents, that this is a valuable part of their college experience and education to which they are entitled. It is what makes the library interesting and good, and the university a less lonely place, even if most use it simply as a place to study. Other students will take advantage of the additional learning experiences the library affords. Students feel as if they are part of something larger when they study surrounded by books, because it means they are standing in a tradition of those who have achieved some success and recognition in their field of study, and this in itself is motivating.

Even if books are not strictly needed for the successful completion of assigned coursework, students derive educational benefit, better knowledge of their disciplines or profession, intellectual stimulation, a historical perspective, and enjoyment from being able to browse library collections. Books reflect the culture and the character of the place, the spirit of the age (and former ages), and the interests of faculty and student body. Seeing books on display raises students’ awareness of the world around them, deepens their understanding of their discipline, allows them to discover who they are, and stimulates intellectual curiosity. It is an essential part of their college experience.

The library with books prominently and centrally displayed, with collections maintained over time, also creates a sense of continuity and community on campus in ways the bookless library does not.

Print collections also allows librarians the opportunity to casually engage with students about their academic interests and intellectual pursuits, where initiating conversation with students gazing at screens–even to ask, “Do you need assistance?”– feels a bit invasive. A library with physical books and maintained collections creates a sense of value around scholarship, while electronic texts are experienced as ephemeral and inconsequential, or at least perceived to be that way by students. And to a large extent, they are correct, for who outside a university setting can even access that academic ebook?

To Prensky’s point, libraries really cannot be forced to evolve beyond the limitations of the software that is available to them. Taking print away won’t force libraries, their systems, or their users, to evolve faster, or necessarily make the online experience any better or more engaging for our users. Evolution requires that our profession return to the development of standards for its systems and its metadata, and envision what a fully-developed digital library online should look like. 

Library designers and architectural firms who claim to be engineering the 21st century library experience might give some thought as to how digital collections might be meaningfully integrated into the physical space to create a modern library that is more than just a building with open seating areas. At the same time, library software product developers might consider how a library online can be more than just a search box with list ranked results. 

In both the physical library space and the virtual one, we want to provide users with a browseable collection of new and significant titles, prominently displayed, to encourage engagement with our resources.

Library collections serve an important educational role and are central to the user experience of a good library. Discovery is about finding information, but library collections are really about about knowledge. Collections reflect the library’s commitment to the academic disciplines, to scholarly communication, to education and to knowledge. Whether in print or online, collections are the essence of a good library. 

For libraries to be libraries, they must be content-rich learning environments, where items are not only visible without needing to be invoked by a user’s query, but also stand in relation to other items in collection, developed and maintained by scholars (or scholars at heart) over time. Collections are an important part of the library’s aesthetic appeal, the primary way librarians inspire learning at the university.

Beautiful redesign of the Haverford College Lutnick Library, PA

n library professional literature today, all aspects of the traditional service model are being questioned, including the value of physical books in the academic library space, the value of reference and instructional services (or maintaining the reference desk as a distinct and separate service point from circulation), and most recently, the value of maintaining collectionsOpinions among librarians vary widely on all of these aspects of our practice, but the overarching question really is what should be the user experience of an academic library in the 21st century? Is it a search box and an empty space, or something more vibrant?

In recent years, there has been a very peculiar philosophy of librarianship emanating from both ACRL, the Association of College and Research Libraries, and the dean of a large library school in California,24 perhaps the largest library school in the country, a philosophy which I will call library as facility, where the library is conceived as a new kind of innovative public work and social space, with the librarian acting a collaboration facilitator.25 The new library, as it is sometimes called, was supposed to increase learning opportunities through shared access to work spaces, technology, materials, tools and people–anything but books, it often seems. Work spaces, maker spaces, and computer labs do not perpetuate and sustain a culture of learning and education at a university. 

The traditional collection-centric service library model accomplished some important things that their new library, despite its emphasis on innovation, technology, socializing and 21st century learning, isn’t able to do very effectively, if at all.

Many of these things are what people liked about the library, and what made the library good as a destination, attractive and useful to educated people, scholars and aspiring professionals–even as a place to congregate, collaborate and socialize, which the new library purports, without any evidence, to do better than the old. 

The library, provided it was good, represented the current state of culture of educated people and the current state of the disciplines supported by the institution. It actively showcased new and significant publications, and helped users keep up with trends, which were important ways the library added value to the university. It represented the contributions of intellectuals and scholars across place and time, something one cannot get from Google. By going to an academic library, students and scholars felt as if they were experiencing something meaningful, learning what other scholars in their field deemed important and meaningful, inspiring their own research and intellectual inquiry, taking greater control over their education and their lives, as well as connecting with others through shared texts and common cultural reference points. It was an ideal learning environment. 

The old library certainly didn’t need to have everything to be good. No one ever expected that of the library, and if it retained everything, we know that this would not result in an optimal user experience. However, if people could see an abundance of good things in the collection, they would come to trust it, and assume items with which they were not familiar were also good, or something they just might want to know about.

These are important ways in which libraries encouraged independent learning, intellectual curiosity, scholarship, and the pursuit of knowledge and fulfilled its educational mission. This is the aesthetic of the academic library, the essence of “library goodness,”26 and the user experience we should still be striving to cultivate.

New academic libraries being built across the country and around the world at this time are based on different service models and assessment plans, and often on ambiguous concepts (e.g., collaborative learning spaces, active learning centers, student learning environments), which seek to justify, through some new pedagogy, the provision of little more than the provision of tables, chairs, seating arrangements, study rooms and empty space in the place that the traditional library once occupied. 

As more of the collection is online, academic libraries are being converted into student centers, and public libraries are being converted into public office spaces, all in the name (when it comes to obtaining funding for them) of building a better library.

Yet, new library buildings are often designed without any emphasis on collections, books or reading in any format. American Libraries, a magazine of the American Library Association, often features these new facilities as modern libraries, and as evidence of continued investment, innovation and support for libraries–but in fact, the opposite may likely be true.


Many new academic libraries, such as this one at TSU completed in 2019, are built without emphasis on books or reading. The assumption of this atrium design is that books are no longer central to the mission of the library.

It is not my purpose to argue for the legitimacy of a traditional library service model widely lambasted in my profession as dated and “nostalgic,” but to say that we librarians should strive in all ways simply to bring what was good about the old library into the 21st century, to construct an immersive and vibrant user experience grounded in user engagement with quality content

I believe that without visual emphasis on books, scholarly publications, and collections, new libraries cannot function as libraries, any more than a museum can function without an emphasis on cultural objects and the emphasizing, through architecture, lighting and placement of objects in relation to other objects, the value of its collections. Libraries and museums are both experiential. Emphasis on resources conveys a sense of shared value and commitment to scholarship, the absence of which sends a message which has nothing to do with innovation, technology or anything positive, really.

Libraries should place popular and interesting titles in high traffic areas to encourage browsing and user engagement with them. (Mylar is a book’s best friend, and I believe in retaining he covers even in an academic library.) They should strive to creatively merchandise publications, make users aware of them, promote them, and create conversation around them. They should try to instill the habit of reading outside of class assignments. They should convey value and respect for knowledge for knowledge’s sake, not just for assignment completion. Librarians who are knowledgeable about the collections–who themselves read for pleasure or knowledge–encourage reading in students.  

If there are physical collections, virtual fulfillment may represent an important avenue for libraries to explore. People still enjoy browsing print, but may not wish to carry books around to read them or be obligated to return them. With virtual fulfillment, users can browse print in the library but download an electronic copy to with to take them to read. Like in the days of the monastic libraries, physical books might not go far from the shelves (they were sometimes chained to the shelves back then). We should also try different ways of representing ebooks and eresources in the physical library space and even beyond the walls of the library. 

Modifications to our discovery tools and websites to make the library’s online collections more prominent and easy to browse is another area ripe for development. There have been projects at universities and Google to develop virtual bookshelf apps to recreate the experience of wandering through the stacks.27 Unfortunately, these initiatives have been short-lived, perhaps because increasingly, ebooks are not afforded call numbers and quality metadata like their print counterparts,28 making it harder to order them on a virtual bookshelf. 

Just as museums are about cultural and aesthetic objects, libraries are about intellectual objects, primarily in the form of texts. Libraries must showcase and celebrate them. 

For the user experience of the library to be good, and for librarians to be valued as professionals, we must make a determined return to content–including digital content–within our physical spaces, and also develop rich, content-centric websites to enhance our online presence, with personalization and many of the features one would expect to find in commercial websites. 

oday, funding for the construction of new libraries is often allocated entirely to the building and building technology. There is often nothing inside of them but tables, chairs, sofas, study rooms and empty spaces. Books are either not visible, or else appear to serve a purely ornamental function, sometimes referred to as “academic wallpaper.” They are placed not at eye-level, but from the feet to waist, in low units to not block the views out the window. The placement of books in a library makes a statement about their worth.

With new library renovation projects, is not uncommon for millions to be allocated to energy efficient smart window and lighting control systems, robotic storage and retrieval systems, remote storage facilities to house the collection while the new library stands vacant, RFID systems, retro modern-styled furnishings, with an abundance of empty space left over serving no discernible purpose except to be a reading room, sometimes referred to as a learning commons. Who cares about robotic retrieval and self-check out machines when the library is not investing in books anymore? 

Despite the investment in technology as in itself a kind of design objective, there is often little discussion about the user experience of the library beyond providing quiet places to sit to get work done, or learning objectives of the space beyond assistance with assignment completion. 

Library professional magazines routinely feature these new bookless spaces as innovative libraries, as examples of “new libraries.” Historic Carnegie libraries are being gutted and converted into open, empty public work spaces, their books often put into remote storage. In a college and academic environment, the elimination of books in the name of 21st century learning, progress, and improved librarianship, should not be regarded uncritically by our own profession. It is not proven that, all things being equal, bookless libraries offer superior learning outcomes when compared with our former content rich, collection-centered facility which emphasized books, ideas, research and publications. 

I understand the need for many libraries to be digital. STEM libraries in particular, where journals comprise the collection, may significantly benefit from being fully digital. In addition, libraries with a strictly vocational (skills-based) orientation, where people need access to technical manuals and reference materials are fine online. Students and faculty need access to scholarly databases, which get more expensive with each passing year.

But let’s not be eager to redeem these empty spaces which are replacing the traditional college and research library by imagining them to be functioning as some new sort of “learning commons,” or worse, some kind of primal learning environment for the 21st century. For even if as a culture we have slipped into a period of secondary orality, why should the library make it a priority to contribute to illiteracy? And if the space were designed for knowledge transmission like in the old days before books (the Dark Ages), the faculty are still not going to be the rhapsodes or storytellers for our imaginary campfires and watering-holes. Older generations of scholars are not eagerly waiting on our collaborative staircases to share knowledge with passersby. Indeed, our spare, light-infused learning environments have little appeal to scholars. We cannot feed their creativity or inspire their literary production through the provision of empty spaces. 

Libraries are about creating community, not through oral exchanges or empty spaces, but by showcasing cultural and intellectual achievement: what is current, significant, new and compelling in the disciplines and in culture. They are about what is good. Libraries add value to the academic community by placing intellectual objects, usually in the form of texts, into broader public view.

To this end, a library needs three things to be successful:

  1. the right titles,
  2. the ability to place these titles into meaningful relationship with other titles, into a collection,
  3. the capacity to place its collections into public view. 

Librarians who are intimately familiar with, or at least know something about the collection, are a plus. 

A library must display and promote publications, contextualize them, and create meaning around them. This is the primary way academic librarians support reading, research, education, community, intellectual inquiry and knowledge in the 21st century. 

The invisible library. There are many proposed academic library service models out there to address the phenomenon of collectionlessness in the new academic library.

The deans of library schools, such as Danuta Nitecki, are particularly adept at re-purposing the library and librarians through schemes which try to reassure everyone that the library, and librarians, aren’t going away any time soon, despite evidence to the contrary. Library as venue, where success is measured by facilities use, is her latest rendition of a library where collections do not matter.24 

It is foolish to think that after eliminating all of the books, that we can turn around and assess our value as library professionals simply by documenting facilities use. Everyone knows how many students are using the space to study or complete group work has little to do with the efforts of librarians. Students can study with wi-fi all over a college campus, and often prefer to do so where there are food services and other students around them. Every academic building on a college campus has seating, tables, lounges, vending machines and students at the tables set out for them. No one is counting heads at these various locations, for example, to determine how many students are studying in the Communications or Education building, or at the student center. 

Another proposed scheme for asserting and assessing our value without collections is serving as some kind of “collaboration facilitator,”25 but what are the measurable outcomes for facilitating collaboration among faculty members and students? What magic wand do we have for getting faculty to collaborate with each other? 

Libraries are content-rich learning environments which encourage resource use and independent learning.

Good libraries encourage browsing, intellectual inquiry and exchange of ideas, and the feeling of community, much better than the generalized, bland and often empty learning centers now called libraries, where knowledge transmission is often theoretically moored, not in authoritative collections, publications, or even online resources, but in orality, in the nobodaddy of collaboration, which architects and library designers (even our own library professional associations) are keen on advancing as the pre-eminent learning modality of the 21st century library.

he trend with new library construction projects to downplay the library part of the library goes back at least to 2003, in what began as fascinating study by a doctoral student in Education to assess institutional priorities motivating the construction and design of new academic libraries.31

The conclusion, derived from a survey of 53 new academic libraries (85 surveyed), is that in most instances, the needs of the academic library and its operations were not considered or thought important in the new library planning process.32 In many instances, funds were allocated to “sophisticated light and window control systems for both energy efficiency and environmental sustainability.”33 Building size was also considered an important factor independent from collections34 or library operations.

According to this study, while there were acknowledgements that students were now using different formats, but there were no new service plans or funds set aside for deploying new technology to enhance the user experience of online library resources, to raise awareness of digital resources by those in the physical library space, to improve the collection itself, or how they might be displayed to add interest or promote resource use. 

  • Why not, for example, use technology funds for a new automation system and enhancements to the catalog and website?
  • Why not devise tools to promote online resources in the physical environment?
  • Why not devise tools to promote new ebook titles online?
  • Why not use technology and visualization tools to track and display to other users what researchers are doing in real time and where they are going online?

Why are so many new library design firms fixated on strategies to manage physical inventory through costly solutions (RFID technology, robotic storage and retrieval systems, smart gates, self-check out machines), when everyone acknowledges that circulation is at an all time low, and less than 5% of library budgets are going to print?

Why declare the physical collection to be obsolete, but at the same time deploy costly robotic technology for storing, managing and preserving the physical book? How does the new multi-million dollar library function any better than the old in terms of learning outcomes?

Despite much speculation about how the new people-centric, socially-oriented empty spaces will add value to students and to colleges and universities, there is no evidence that a building alone, or a building that is just an empty space, no matter how nice, how architecturally innovative or spacious, will result a better education, improved scholarship, increased professional development, better retention, higher enrollment, support meaningful intellectual exchanges, or offer any measurable educational or learning outcomes.

It isn’t that I am insensitive to the need to replace worn out facilities, to provide beautiful study or work spaces to students, or for librarians to evolve and adapt to new roles in the Digital Age. It just seems that the millions going into a new library building construction projects are a lost opportunity for genuine innovation to improve library services. I care about the user experience of the library itself, not the user experience of an iconic space.

We know from many years of study with low income students and families throughout the course of the 20th century that impoverished learning environments do not inspire learning. How is it that a library that is not focused on its resources, on the importance of its own scholarly content, in any way capable of encouraging others to attribute value to it, or to the scholarly activity they represent? How is a library that is primarily a work space attractive to faculty or aspiring scholars?

No genuine philosophy of librarianship can be founded upon the mere provision of study spaces, seating and natural light. At a university, the focus on intellectual inquiry and creativity is what makes it good and attractive to scholars. 

Library architecture and infrastructure, including our websites and automation systems, must serve a legitimate 21st century librarianship, without which architects and educators–jumping on the bandwagon of the “new library movement“–will continue to create multi-story structures of open staircases, lounge areas, balconies and study rooms, glass and LED lighting, without sufficient consideration given to the educational, intellectual and humanistic purpose of an academic library, our processes, and our need to actively promote resources to those who come into our spaces.

Some new libraries often use staircases, landings and catwalks as design elements to emphasize vertical lines and transparency, while putting books out of sight.

Dignitas or Vanitas? The hidden meaning of the stacks.

In this Digital Age, where so much is competing for our users’ attention, academic libraries must seek new ways to offer a stimulating and vibrant learning experience for scholars, which means a concerted focus on content, especially new content, to put intellectual inquiry and new ideas front and center to our communities. 

With the move to becoming fully digital, new academic libraries have gone not towards vibrancy and the world of ideas, but sadly, towards a hollow solipsism, all “about” the experience of their engineered architectural spaces and views of the mundane outside windows, or else about the intellectual exchanges imagined to be going on inside of them–especially on large-stepped learning staircases, which have become popular with architectural designers for the last several years,35 but less so with users. Light-infused big-stepped learning staircases coupled with empty space lend an unprecedented prominence to the façade of new library buildings, while collections inside them have all but disappeared. They are no longer about publications and ideas, but about their glass windows, over-sized staircases, furnishings and whiteboards. Yet we do not know if the learning center model is any more popular with our users, if it is any more effective at encouraging learning than the old library full of books, which always seemed to have plenty of seating for those who wanted to sit and study or do work. 

Holding on to old and worn books just to be academic wallpaper–the Disney theme park model–is not the answer, or my answer, although some have proposed that we do precisely that, including the green banker’s lamps.36

Within academic libraries with large historical holdings, the unkempt stacks which have not been replenished with anything new for many years, may have already come to resemble a medieval Vanitas painting: a pall of dust may have settled over everything, cloth spines deteriorated to the point where the majority of them are unreadable from age, wear, and decades of radiation from fluorescent lighting. (Still, I marvel at a critical edition of Plato’s Euthyphro, Apology and Crito in Greek from 1924. Who at my university continued to check this book out into the 1980s and 1990s?) Everything is in a state of ruinous decay.

The sad plight of the works of those who devoted themselves to scholarship, and the seeming lack of care for library collections over the course of decades, will no doubt cause some to question the viability of their own scholarly pursuits and speculate whether it is all a vanity; or else, on the other hand, if the collection is good and cared for, to consider, as Classical philosophers say, that intellectual achievements are timeless and enduring, and that one’s education will be valued by others long into the future.

Whatever one’s declared major or metaphysical leanings, the question might be looked upon, as all things might, from a strictly business perspective in the modern university: in an academic setting, the care and condition of the library’s collection symbolizes purpose and dignity (dignitas, respect and esteem, as opposed to vanitas, a “vanity” or folly), respect for knowledge and scholarship. The quality and condition of the collection speaks wonders to answering this gut-wrenching question which our students are undoubtedly asking themselves each and every day: Is it all worth it?

I believe a university should care very much about how their current and prospective students are determining to answer this question for themselves.

Vanitas or dignitas? At a campus library, how users view the collection can impact enrollment and retention.

e can easily speculate about architects’ and administrators’ motivations for building spacious new libraries that are not libraries, or have little library left inside of them. I understand their motivations perfectly well. More puzzling to me is why my fellow librarians and especially our library professional associations are celebrating the conversion of their libraries into desolate work and office spaces

Contrary to the stereotype,”37 38 the ones resisting are not the old, nostalgic and techno-phobic librarians who are stuck in their ways. Mid-career librarians and scholars alike, particularly those in the Humanities and Social Sciences, will undoubtedly feel confused by the rapid degradation of the academic and college library into little more than lounges, stairs, atria, balconies, catwalks, private and group study rooms, empty office spaces, and glass walls, all in the name of learning

Not so long ago, academic librarians fought against a perception by administrators that the library was nothing more than a study hall, a place to get course work done. Now, librarians may feel very much between a rock (book warehouse) and a hard place (work space), even blindsided by the cringe-worthy messaging emanating from our own institutions and municipalities that the elimination of the stacks, or placing them out of sight, constitutes some form of progress, and our students will now be able to learn better now that the books are gone. 

I am not wedded to the stacks or book format. Just like everyone else, I do most of my reading online where I can make the fonts bigger. But to me, progress for a 21st century library would be replacing the stacks with something better, something which would help us market our content better, to help us become a modern library, and not just a modern space.

Truly, I love the idea of the public library as a vibrant community center, with cooking and art classes, music lessons, café, with performances of live bands on its rooftop. I’d like to drop my kids off to spend an afternoon doing something productive, even if they are not reading. I’d like an indoor multistory play structure / obstacle course in the middle of the children’s area such as they have at some malls (I guess I have reached that grandmotherly stage where I enjoy sitting and watching other people’s kids playing.) I want Bob Ross painting classes and leisure learning. I want exhibits by local artists and children’s art on display. But just as with academic libraries, public libraries are also likely to be made over into some kind horrid, vacuous bookless business center.

Indeed, the trend to turn the public library into office / business / work space, paralleling trends in academic libraries, is occurring in public libraries everywhere. This is one architect’s vision 39 for one of the oldest libraries in the country, the Free Library of Philadelphia:


The Public Library as an Office Park.

The Free Library of Philadelphia appears to be free of books now.

This might have been a meaningful project for the architect, and undoubtedly lucrative for the storage solution provider, but why would anyone bother to enter the building or spend time this place? (Why convert a historical building to mid-century modern design?)

What makes it successful, or not, as a library?

Closer to home, in my own suburban community, League City, TX, library planners insist, based on the studies they have conducted, that what people really want and expect from their library are not books or resources, but private study rooms and public work spaces.40 Who are these people? Why is it the residents of League City have so much work to do? The finding that citizens need more work space is used as justification for the construction of much bigger, empty facilities at taxpayer expense, and with little more (and often less) for the collections inside of them or offered online. 

The unimaginative and uncultured vision for new libraries, both public and academic, being advanced by new library planners, architects and self-appointed design consultants, is seemingly the same everywhere: innovative spaces for people to get their work done. At the end of the day, the new library is envisioned as a public office space. There will no doubt be social gatherings and events as well, but ultimately it is just a boring business center, not a library, which is about creativity and ideas.  

Where before the collection allowed people to feel grounded in the space and gave them a reason for being there (even if all they wanted was a computer or place to sit), inside the new library there is no connection between the library and the scholar, or the library and its community, except for pedestrian views out large glass windows, which does nothing to establish a unique sense of place. The new library looks like a car dealership. 

No doubt, many new academic libraries may offer a certain kind of anesthetized appeal buildings, but from what I have seen in library publications, many do not offer to users the intellectual stimulation, the academic intimacy, the inducements to learn, or the aesthetic experience of a good college or academic library. 

Our library professional magazines devote special issues to these spare, supposedly innovative facilities, proclaiming them to be beautiful and modern, but I don’t see what is to be gained by “converting historical Carnegie libraries into modern vacant structures.41 Isn’t it time to assess if vacant spaces are really meeting the needs of students and scholars?

Granted, every library is different and we all might not see things the same way. But the 21st century academic library should not be conceptualized as vacuous spaces, illuminated stairwells and open seating arrangements, with success measured by body counts. If the collection is online, we need a way in the physical space to emphasize our online collections.

Nor should it be envisioned as assemblages of primitive learning environments, “caves, a campfires, and watering holes,”42 from a time people were illiterate (the “Dark Ages”,) and therefore had to get information from other people, instead of books and authoritative sources. It shouldn’t be envisioned as a chat room or public lounge where the users are on display (“Users are seated in the middle, because they are the focus, not books. . . “), with rooms off to the side available to rent by the hour.

Academic libraries should foster engagement and awareness of the most significant cultural and scholarly resources today. That is our mission, to help create and sustain educated people.

The new 21st century library should make an effort to harness new technology to do what the traditional library did, only better. It should be a content-rich learning environment, a Times Square, a marketplace for ideas.

The library should be a vibrant and stimulating attraction, full of distractions and temptation to read, learn and explore, one that strives to actively and imaginatively engage users in significant and interesting resources from the moment patrons walk in the door or land on our websites. It should speak to users like an oracle, fostering serendipity, meaning creation, knowledge and insight. It should stimulate the mind and the senses. It should awaken creativity and curiosity. 

At minimum, it should convey the value of scholarship and knowledge for knowledge’s sake, not just to pass a test or complete a task. 

The modern library done right in the Netherlands, called LocHal. New books are attractively displayed in an inmate space which encourages browsing, but there are still plenty of options for socializing, gathering and public programming. The collaborative staircase does not replace the collection, but balances it; the regular steps are proportioned wider than the bleacher stairs, creating a more inviting appearance than large block steps which create an obstacle. Books are visible on the ground floor where librarians can provide assistance and readers advisory, putting books in readers’ hands.

For the last 15 years, there has been a vigorous re-imagining of libraries as conference centers, social study spaces and tutoring / learning centers, with a determined shift away from collection-oriented interiors and assessment plans toward what is conceived by architects, college presidents and some library futurists to supposedly more socially-oriented, service-oriented and consumer-driven designs.43 New libraries, supposedly developed around new service models and priorities, are popping up everywhere, consistently showcased in library literature as beautiful and innovative. But are they really? More to the point, are they really libraries, or are they the emperor’s new clothes? How successful are they as libraries and by what measure do we evaluate their success?

We might take a step back from philosophies and ask what categorically defines libraries as a libraries–as good and beautiful libraries–from a professional library standpoint, and are these new facilities better than the traditional library for supporting higher education and learning? How do new college and university libraries actively support publishing, research and scholarship? How do they support student success, not just as defined by the student and the scholar? How does it support intellectual inquiry?

As libraries are shorn of print, paper–even “free speech” areas–publications, collections and outward signs of intellectual life, there has been a concomitant ratcheting up of pressure for librarians to gather evidence, based on measurable outcomes, to demonstrate their continued relevance to the university, and specifically to “student success,” however that might be defined (at this time, 2020, there is no consensus). We must forget about “life-long learning” because that’s not a measurable objective. “Knowledge” or “inspiration” isn’t measurable either. Usage stats? No good, that’s on output, not an outcome.  

Staring into a dark abyss of institutional assessment plans, with their nagging insistence on tying all library goals in some measurable way to classroom learning or institutional (business) outcomes, goals that are not library-centric (that is, measures having anything to do with the library’s being a good library), librarians face a profound challenge. The college and academic research library was never fundamentally “about” instructional support for classroom learning, and even less about the business objectives of the university. Indeed, the harder we work to tie the library to the remedial learning objectives of the classroom (The student will learn to search the scholarly databases and locate five relevant peer-reviewed sources. . . ), the more redundant and irrelevant we become. In terms of demonstrating value to those who fund us, however, it seems we can only be about “student success” as defined by the institution (retention, throughput, higher GPAs), not about scholarship, publishing, learning for learning’s sake, or success as defined by the student or scholar. Success as defined by the student and the scholar is precisely what academic libraries are about. 

The academic library was always, theoretically speaking, more ambitious than mere classroom learning or assignment completion. We have always been more about learning outside of the classroom than inside of it. We are co-curricular. We are about support for the acquisition (and creation) of disciplinary and professional knowledge. We serve the academic disciplines and the purpose of furthering intellectual inquiry. We serve the individual’s own definition of success, helping him or her achieve his creative, intellectual and career potential

A corollary of this is that as library professionals and educators, an important part of our job function is to actually stimulate demand for resources, not to passively make them available to those who might wish to access them.

Mechanisms for stimulating demand–for marketing resources and content–must be a key part of the design of the 21st century library, a part of the architectural solution or plan. It must promote resource use of print and online resources (there is absolutely no reason we should need to print out and tape up covers of ebooks in a brand new library–there should be a plan for ebook promotion). But a prerequisite of this is maintaining a good collection with the technological infrastructure in place to provide a 21st century library experience.

Influenced by a common perception that everything students want or need can be found online, many within the library field are ready to proclaim that we are no longer about publications, reading, titles or collections in any format, but about teaching information literacy classes so students can identify truth from fake news, or help students with their class assignments. This certainly sounds practical and very meaningful, a way to directly add value and justify ourselves in some way that aligns with university assessment plans.

Librarians can certainly support classroom instruction by showing students how to perform research, identify authoritative sources, and cite sources for papers. Indeed, we have always done so. However, it may not be clear to university administrators or the faculty that it is the responsibility of librarians to perform this function, or that they are needed to perform this task. If I were a Provost or Dean, I would assume that any faculty member qualified to teach college-level courses, and who are presumably spending their spare time writing papers for publication, should also be able to show students how to perform basic research in their disciplines and demonstrate whatever tasks and skills are needed to complete course assignments. 

The solution to making ourselves relevant is not to declare collections obsolete or make support for classroom instruction our exclusive mission, but to more effectively leverage new technologies and designs to promote engagement with our content, both in print and online, in order to create and sustain the next generation of readers, writers, scholars and leaders. We need to build and sustain content-rich and dynamic learning environments which reflect scholarly communication in the disciplines.

We should seek to preserve and amplify what made the library good for scholars, and explore truly innovative ways to market physical and virtual content to both physical and virtual users. That should be the primary objective of new library spaces, along with greater integration of the physical and virtual resources to support community engagement with our content. As a profession, it is vital that we renew our commitment to the disciplines, and to the provision of quality content within a disciplinary framework. We need a clear sense of what the user experience of a modern library should be, and what our business and technological requirements are to achieve this, rather than depending on architects and design firms to define what a library is and what it will be in the future.

It is the communal browsing experience, the shared cultural referents, and disciplinary knowledge which we want to encourage and preserve. That is what makes the library a library, or at least, what makes it a good one. 

Liberty University Library has completed a beautiful redesign with a good balance between the social and the intellectual, the modern and the traditional, space and content.

hen new libraries are discussed, whether public or academic, there is one universal theme: elimination of stack space to make room for collaborative study spaces. 

Booklessness, or the appearance of it (books may be stowed away in low traffic areas or moved off site), is often spun as a peculiar benefit of the 21st century library, in itself signifying progress and innovation. There has been very limited discussion about the value of collections to our academic missions, but a shift from collection-centric assessment models to outcomes-based models has also, for obvious reasons, tended to negate the value of collections and those who work to maintain them.

On a conceptual level, I think it important to ask:

  • What does the new library have to offer to faculty and students who are interested in orienting themselves and succeeding within their academic disciplines?
  • How do new libraries effectively promote innovation or awareness of new or significant publications in the disciplines or encourage use of these resources?
  • How do they encourage learning?
  • How do they browsing for new ideas to encourage inquiry and research?
  • How does a bookless library reflect upon the university?

With this shift away from publications and collection use, there has also been a new emphasis on librarian initiated-interaction (e.g., poking students who come within eye-shot to see if they need help, greeting people as they walk through the doors; more aggressively selling ourselves and our “services”; and assiduously documenting these efforts and casual encounters as “evidence” of our value).

There is also a questionable trend to count in our assessment frameworks the utilization of our spaces by students for any conceivable purpose,44 whether for study, reading, creating, conversing, snacking, meditating, socializing or sleeping. Why is facilities use a measure of our success?

New libraries are being built without consideration for the most important function of the academic library within a university: raising awareness of new and significant publications (in all formats, print and digital) within the disciplines, and encouraging user engagement with them.

For example, we buy thousands of ebooks, but have no effective or efficient mechanism for promoting them in the modern or traditional library space. This seems like a design flaw to me. If our collection is predominantly online, why can there be no way to promote eresources in the physical space?  If 95% of the collection is online, why have no evidence of that in the physical library? There is so much discussion about data visualization right now, yet there is no way to visualize the library’s collection? 

The same sort of criticism would be leveled at an art museum which places insufficient focus on the art in its collections. Expecting people to learn about new and significant titles on their own by pulling them out of your catalogs and databases or discovery layer is not an effective library service model

Libraries have the same or similar aesthetic purpose as museums, to cultivate awareness and appreciation for intellectual and cultural artifacts.  

In order to do so, it needs just a bit of darkness and mystery, a feeling of transcendence of time and place, not glass walls where dust motes float in the air and the mundane world is ever present.  

Cornell Art Library

Scaled to the Book. The architect of the Cornell Art Library, Wolfgang Tschapeller, wanted to devise a way to emphasize vertical lines and openness along with creating more intimate spaces for books. While not filling me with warmth and and a sense of intimacy, the book grotto is a place I’d like to explore. There is no focus on new books or “marketing” or resources in the space.

Having vs. Doing, Literacy vs. Information Literacy,
and other False
Dichotomies in Library Literature

hile these new facilities are still called libraries, and librarians work there at least for the time being, it not clear to librarians that new libraries are serving in that capacity well, or at all–or what library professional assessment standards, if any, ought to be applied to them.45

Around the world, a similar trend to convert libraries into social spaces is occurring, most notably in public libraries, which are being transformed into stunning community centers “with books thrown in,” as one BBC reporter cheerfully describes.46 We have yet to know how these library spaces are faring, their impact on their communities, their impact on librarians, if the renovation has succeeded in attracting new users while maintaining the old, and their impact on learning. So many articles and press releases bear curious statements like, “With the new building, we decided to put people first,” referencing that seating has replaced the stacks.

What did they think they were they doing before? Putting books first?

In addition to creating buildings for gathering together, campus and community leaders alike are eager to build new libraries not full of books, but full of technology.47 Just as books were once thought indispensable to the scholarly enterprise, technology is now presumed to be a similar sort of intrinsic good. In the public discourse surrounding new libraries, “technology” is often used euphemistically, as code for “not books,” rather than something specific that everyone wants (it is hard to get people to agree on what technology is needed beyond wi-fi, larger screens for communal viewing and a place to recharge). Nonetheless, engaging with technology and others in the library space is thought to have educational benefit in higher education, and appear to occupy a status that books once held. 

The often repeated sentiment in library literature now, that “We all know that today, having doesn’t matter, it’s doing that counts. . .”, stated by the President of the American Library Association,48 presents a dangerously false dichotomy, one that too often underscores a troubling reality that the impact of our collections on learning cannot be meaningfully evaluated or factored into the outcomes-based assessment models in wide use today.

Having a collection, one that is current, topical, interesting, selective and browseable, is an important service which libraries and librarians provide to their communities. Academic librarians cannot provide good library services without a means of offering visible, meaningful collections that stimulate, support and inspire research. Without doing, we cannot have, and without having, we cannot do.

Having quality collections is fundamental to a good user experience of a library. Collections do not need to be physical, but they need to be visible, browseable, and perceived by others to constitute an actual collection, cultivated with intentionality and care–not passively acquired, random aggregations of third party content. The library must strive to be more than a costly academic search engine. 

There is an error in thinking that now that we librarians should now be wholly unconcerned about “having,” or about resources, that we can or should simply shift gears and be about doing. I would venture to say that to users, our having resources is what matters most to them, and if they had to choose between access to a librarian or access to resources, they would hands down pick the latter. By focusing on having, we convey “these texts have value.” 

Most people who go, or went to a library with regularity, did so to ascertain what is new or relevant to their interests of field. If they could not do that, users did not return to the library. We must take what was good about the old library and move that into the virtual library space. 

Maintaining quality collections–having–is a core function of libraries, along with stimulating demand for resources, which it cannot do well without collection accessibility, high resource visibility, a marketing plan, and staff who read, specifically who keep up with the scholarly literature in the disciplines.

That colleges and universities are building “new libraries” without investing in library resources should not be a cause for celebration by ALA and ACRL, and should not be treated as a kind of progress. 

So please, my fellow librarians, stop saying “having” doesn’t matter in the 21st century–it matters to our users and should matter a great deal to us.

New Library (Nieuwe Bibliotheek) in the Netherlands, which based its design on patrons surveys, is a departure from pragmatic American new library “work space” models. Dutch models promote learning, leisure, hanging out and socializing, not bring your office work there. Dutch audiences prefer an intimate bookstore merchandising model where books are displayed with jackets on face-out. There is a stylish cafe which looks like a place you’d go on a date.  

ith the advent of new libraries,” the once lively debate over formats (print vs. digital) has been overshadowed by more fundamental questions about the need for libraries, or librarians, to maintain robust collections in any format,49 50 and moreover, how this need might be persuasively demonstrated to those who fund us.

While the leadership of our two pre-eminent library professional associations, ACRL and ALA, have long embraced booklessness–as a profession we’ve supposedly been about information since the late 1980s, and twenty years later, the library science degree at top-tier library schools morphed into “Master’s in Information Science” (no library in their name)–the sudden disappearance of open stacks over the last few years, and rapid conversion of many college and university libraries into bookless study / learning centers, collaboration centers, tutoring centers, media centers, and maker-spaces, etc., is making it harder for library directors to justify their acquisitions budgets and professional staffing levels.

Within library literature, those who defend books now risk being castigated as technophobic, unwilling to adapt to change, nostalgic or “sclerotic.”37 38

While scholars and intellectuals are still writing and reading books, guests routinely appear on talk shows and in the media to discuss their books–and publications are still the basis for tenure at a university–within the library profession, even reading has become something of a liability. In a publication devoted to books, Publisher’s Weekly, in an article written by a librarian53 there is implication that librarians who like to read are not tech-savvy or not sufficiently customer service-oriented. 

  • Why would someone who reads not be technically inclined?
  • How can you as a librarian provide good library service if you yourself do not read?
  • Why seek to stigmatize readers and reading in the first place?

Common advice for candidates for library jobs is if asked why you decided to become a librarian, never mention that you love books and reading

Today, you can be all about instruction/teaching, information literacy or “helping people,” but not about reading or liking books.

Which begs the question: Should librarians know nothing more than how to pull things out of databases? How can one be about information literacy but not actual literacy

I believe that reading, learning, publishing and ideas should be celebrated in the college and academic library space. The space should be a celebration of books, thought and ideas. 

Therefore, we shouldn’t be hiding books out of sight, acting as if they are a source of embarrassment, treating them as decorative wallpaper–gluing, shellacking them and tacking them to the wall like molted snake skins, or putting them into inaccessible wall niches–or making assumptions that the stacks are somehow getting in the way of students’ ability to learn, no longer relevant to our academic missions because now, we are all about technology, work spaces and collaboration.

We are supposed to be encouraging respect for publications, writing and scholars, not denigrating them. We should not prioritize empty space or views out the window over resources, as if “nothing” has more value than the “something” we provide, whatever that something might be. 

The impact of library acquisition patterns on use. Even as millions are spent on online resources per institution, investment in print now comprises less than 5.8% of academic library acquisitions budgets, according to a recent study by Ithaka S+R.54 The Ithaka study uses acquisitions data harvested from library automation systems over a period of three years, 2014-7. The percent of ebooks purchased individually (title-by-title selection) was less than 1% of the budget. The decline in both print and title-by-title selection practices are not really news, but what this large-scale study, generously funded by the Mellon Foundation with the support of OCLC WMS and ProQuest Ex Libris, reveals is the sheer difficulty of gathering data to study library acquisition patterns in the first place, let alone assessing the impact these trends are having on user behavior.

In the annual academic library survey conducted by ACRL (ACRL Academic Library Trends and Statistics Survey), print books are lumped in with all other one-time purchases, which may include individually selected ebooks, videos, and anything else not part of a subscription package. The ACRL survey attempts to capture detailed statistics on academic library services for all sizes of library, and it has captured this same information over the course of years to allow for identification of trends over time. However, it does not ask about percent of budget spent on print, percent devoted to books in all formats, percent obtained through DDA/PDA programs, etc., or provide detailed information about acquisition patterns to allow for an investigation into how changes in acquisition patterns have impacted library usage, student behavior, perceptions of the library, learning outcomes, or the library profession as such (something ACRL’s membership would certainly care about). Through ACRL’s metrics, one cannot make any correlation, say, between declining print purchases and reduced foot traffic in the library. 

I am not attached to any particular format, but rather to the objective of maintaining stimulating, current, and visible collections which support browsing for ideas, current scholarship, creativity and independent learning. I would like some way to integrate ebooks with print books in the stacks, and raise awareness of ebooks in the physical space.

Regardless of their format, collections, titles, reading and publications must remain central to our academic mission and messaging, and to the user experience of the library.

By becoming an even bigger computer lab or study hall with more meeting and study rooms, by our focusing on connecting people with each other rather than encouraging people to engage with books, ideas and current scholarship, we may not actually be creating environments conducive to learning, despite what architects have to say about the matter. (Many libraries had ample seating and study rooms before converting the library into a monument to learning.) 

I believe that booklessness, and the premise of the “new librarianship,” that we are just about collaboration or technology or our services or our work spaces, but not about collections, are hurting students and faculty in ways that have not been fully realized.

It is also taking away from scholarship as a focus of the library and the librarian-facilitated conversations that new libraries are supposed to be encouraging. 

The Value of Collections in the Digital Age. To date, no large-scale study has been conducted which seeks to determine the relative value of maintaining physical collections in a predominantly digital environment, although this conclusion has been alluded to in a few recent studies.55 

Another related question, one completely independent of formats, is the continued value of title-by-title selection in an online environment, where it has become easy to allow patron-driven and vendor-driven models to determine what we offer. Does it make a difference who does selection?

When a greater percentage of titles are selected individually by selectors and faculty, do users benefit? How does the institution benefit? Aside from offering better, more focused collections of titles thought to be significant or relevant, when librarians (and faculty) are more actively involved with title selection, are they not better equipped to encourage use by students? Are they more satisfied with the library if they can be involved with collection development?

Is there a difference in usage or the user experience of the library where there is more collection development activity, as opposed to the library’s functioning as a passive gateway to subscribed content?56

There are significant costs for college and university libraries to fully divest themselves of print. On a title-by-title basis, pbooks are still more cost effective for smaller campus libraries (see below, The real cost of ebooks ), and most books published today are not available in ebook format to be licensed by a library–at least, not for a few months or years after their print debuts. Those books available to be purchased by a library in ebook format represent a very small percent of book publications. Therefore, without print titles, our collections cannot remain current. We also have a difficult time promoting or raising awareness of ebooks in the library space. 

Our often misunderstood job as academic librarians and educators is not to satisfy demand for resources, but to stimulate it!

Libraries play a significant role not just in meeting needs or answering questions, but in creating them in the first place, stimulating demand for their own resources. 

Our collections should inspire wonder, curiosity, investigation, reaction and research. We cannot accomplish this without high collection visibility and a discernible commitment to maintaining quality content. 

Whether public or academic, our patrons don’t necessarily know what they want when they come into the library or come to our websites. Rather than looking for something in particular, they come to the library to browse, looking for something to like, something interesting, something that jumps out at them, something meaningful to them, to see what is new, or explore their chosen career. 

This is the aesthetic experience that a good library provides. Our websites should cultivate the same aesthetic, putting our content out in front to invite exploration of the invisible world of intellectual endeavor, scholarly pursuit and creativity. 

A good library collection is like a living thing, the substrate of intellectual life at the university, a colorful coral reef that the whole academic community feeds upon to nurture ideas, learning, knowledge creation and intellectual development. New books are the blooms. Primarily through its collections, the library serves as a visually and intellectually stimulating place for scholars and aspiring scholars to visit to gather ideas and explore. Good collections take years to develop. Kill off the reef and the fish are going elsewhere! Choose wisely for your library and your university.

he centripetal pull of new academic libraries away from content and collection activity in the disciplines to “collaboration” and student support seems to beg the question: Can college libraries simply subscribe to online databases and be done with it?

No need for librarians to be title selectors, as vendors (and patron-driven acquisitions programs) will select and manage ebooks and ejournals for us. No need for catalogers either, for Web-based discovery services are replacing the catalog and catalogers. That isn’t exactly true, but there is a perception that there is no need to bother editing and enhancing bibliographic records anymore because the vendor will do it all for us. Ex Libris, the largest academic library system and content aggregator, is positioning itself to sell universities a complete cloud-based library solution, an academic library in the cloud. What will be the response from my fellow librarians then, I wonder? Arguing that it doesn’t meet our standards then will be a little too late.

The thought now seems to be that without acquisitions, collection management and technical services consuming so much of our space and energy, the academic library and its librarians can be liberated, transformed into something better and more useful to students. Library professionals in technical services will be freed up to do “more important things,” like instructing people how to use the discovery tool. 

At the same time, the focus of the new academic library/learning center is no longer on the provision of quality collections, engaging content, or ideas, or fostering communities of readers, but on seating arrangements to support individualized learning and study styles, innovative and inspiring architectural spaces, and offering various support services in partnership with other entities on campus.57 Space is allocated to group work with large screens (for collective viewing), video conferencing and the latest technology for brainstorming and motion capture (capturing the body language and hand gestures of participants). In other instances, there are only chairs and tables with outlets, for all library resources are available online.

At some large universities libraries, like at the University of Chicago’s Mansueto library,

or North Carolina State University’s Hunt library,

or Temple University’s Charles Library (below is an architectural rendering; the building opens in 2019),

and countless others under construction or renovation at this time,58 59 books are not visible to patrons when they walk through the doors or in most places in the library.

Unlike traditional college or university libraries, in these new 21st century libraries / learning centers there may be no inducements for students to read–in any format, in print or online. 

There is no emphasis on interesting content, new books to encourage casual reading or awareness of the world of ideas and scholarship. There is nothing to stimulate meaning creation or intellectual engagement. There may be no perceptible collection development activity of any kind.

If research activity is going on, it is not perceptible to others–and it could be, through real-time data visualization of where scholars are going and what they are doing online (while respecting privacy, of course). There is no thought to building online communities, or how to bridge the gap between the online and physical library experience.

It is merely a comfortable, communal place for students to study their textbook and get assignments done. If there are print books, they are often treated as vestigial, placed out of view (away from high traffic areas), moved off to quiet study rooms, scattered around conversation areas to create atmosphere, or placed into low shelving units to not block sight lines to other people or disrupt the view of the outside world. Books may not hit one’s gaze as in traditional libraries, where the books located at eye level circulated more frequently.

The design concept for many new libraries is to achieve a feeling of transparency and openness, and to promote collaboration, rather than academic intimacy. Indeed, within the grand scale, open context and vastness of these new facilities, if there are publications, they may seem small and unimportant, niceties to complement the space, not thought an essential part of the user experience.

Is there any effective way for librarians to demonstrate that quality collections make a difference to the university’s business objectives of attracting, retaining and educating students–to student success–or are collections now deemed to be inconsequential and capable of being summarily replaced–as our library professional library associations seem to assuring us–by our “doing” more, the provision of more information literacy classes, and helping people to make connections with each other? 

Down(sized) and Out(sourced) in the Digital Age:
From Academic Research Libraries to “Learning Centers”

There is a peculiar rhetoric surrounding new academic library architecture which seeks to justify an enormous outlay for the creation of cavernous facilities, often with high ceilings and monumental staircases, glass walls and natural light, robotic storage and retrieval (SRMs) and “smart” windows, but nothing additional for the collections housed inside of them or anything more for resources offered online.

The rational, or assumption, seems to be that an inspirational building with computers is what drives learning in the 21st century. The building may be smart and technologically advanced, but what about its users? How are they “progressing”?

According to the Vice Provost and Director of NCSU Libraries, when planning the new Hunt Library,Our goal was to make a difference in the education and research of students, and something that made them want to become lifelong learners, so we decided on an iconic building.”60 This statement, along with recent trends to create bookless libraries, raises some interesting questions:

  • How can a building alone inspire “life-long learning”?
  • How can a building alone stimulate creativity, learning and intellectual curiosity?
  • How can a building without visible publications encourage publication?
  • How can a building without visible books encourage reading, especially among college students?
  • How are “new university libraries” designed by architectural firms to primarily facilitate interaction with other people (collaboration), rather than to encourage engagement with library resources (collections), impacting library collection development strategies, acquisitions budgets, staffing levels and usage of resources?
  • These newly designed spaces, continuously showcased at library conferences and in library magazines, may be innovative from an architectural standpoint, but are they innovative or functional as libraries?
  • How well do they support our academic missions?  

When planning the $170 million Charles Library at Temple University, a fantastic building which would serve as a collaboration space, “a place where intersections between all of the students and faculty and other folks who chance to be on this campus can occur.”61

No doubt, aesthetics is a very important part of the user experience of an academic library. Not only does it makes the library more enjoyable to users, and encourages them to stay, but it also symbolizes the value placed on scholarship and learning by the institution.

Without a comparable commitment to the provision of quality content and effective online strategies for promoting awareness of content, a building is just an empty gesture. 

The aesthetics of openness and transparency, and talk of collaboration of those who happen to walk through the door, is really the aesthetics of nothingness, and in many ways represents the very opposite of what a good library should be: a content-rich learning environment, where people are inspired to pursue meaning and knowledge creation on their own terms. 

he emphasis of the new academic library is impressive architectural space and awe-inspiring technology, providing spaces for study, interaction with technology, the creation of digital media, social learning and above all, collaborationIn new libraries, collaboration is ostensibly the focus, while the stacks are drastically reduced or eliminated, pushed to the margins, and placed into less public, less visible and less accessible locations. 

In a presentation given at my library, an architect from a prominent design firm explained to librarians the “new academic library” concept. According to him, the library is essentially comprised of three learning environments: the campfire (where the older generation, the faculty, pass knowledge down to the younger generation through stories), the watering hole (where people from different disciplines come together to socialize and share knowledge, or figure out what to do with the knowledge they got from the campfire the night before), and the cave (study rooms). I later discovered this came from and oft quoted book, From the Campfire to the Holodeck: Creating Engaging and Powerful 21st Century Learning Environments by David Thornburg. 

Architects and new library advocates place emphasis on collaboration deriving from group study rooms, communal seating areas and chance encounters of students and faculty with each other in a common space on campus, a space everyone likes to visit because of its beautiful architecture and amenities (tables, computers, couches, whiteboards, study rooms and large screens), not necessarily, or even essentially, because of the library’s resources

Enabling conversation, facilitating social introductions, and promoting discussion are all folded into idea of librarians as collaboration facilitators, but how we are to do this if scholars are not coming into our spaces? Indeed, facilitating collaboration is regarded by as a pre-eminent 21st century role for librarians by those in leadership of ACRL (Association for College and Research Libraries). In the conclusion of their report on the value of academic libraries in the 21st century, Brown and Malenfant emphasize our role as “campus connectors,” specifically within the outcomes assessment movement:

The higher education assessment movement provides a unique opportunity for library leadership. Academic librarians can serve as connectors and integrators, promoting a unified approach to assessment. As a neutral and well-regarded place on campus, the academic library can help break down traditional institutional silos and foster increased communication across the institutional community. Librarians can bring together people from a wide variety of constituencies for focused conversations and spark communities of action that advance institutional mission.25

Despite the authors’ insistence on libraries adopting an outcomes assessment framework, they themselves fail to explain how our new role as “connectors and integrators” can be meaningfully assessed according to the very outcomes framework they advocate. 

The impact of collaboration, or rather collaborative learning, which theoretically occurs in these newly renovated spaces, is frankly no more measurable or significant than the impact of collections, and from an assessment standpoint, cannot be differentiated from other forms of socializing. The impact of both, or each, is as immeasurable as the other.

Even if hi-tech collaborative learning or knowledge-sharing could be meaningfully captured and differentiated from mere socializing, the library still cannot lay claim to it any more than it can, or could, the learning or research which occurred from utilization of the print collection.

If collection usage (usage stats, circulation stats) is now trivialized as having no clear or demonstrable connection with student success (that is, “success” as defined by our parent institutions, not by the users themselves), and provision of quality content is thought to have no meaningful impact on student learning or the university’s business objectives–student enrollment, retention, persistence, graduation rates–surely collaboration cannot be a preferable substitute. Collaboration has no measurable outcomes which can be used to substantiate our value, which is a good thing because we do not know how to facilitate it anyway.

Truly, I love the emphasis on community creation and socializing in these new spaces. Having more people in the library, even if all they want is a cup of coffee, a comfy couch, wi-fi and a study place is not a bad thing. But whatever happened to our profession’s commitment to scholarship, research and publishing

t was hypothesized twenty years ago, when people first began speculating about the 21st century library, that in the future, only top-tier schools would continue to afford their students with access to print collections, and that there would be a widening gap between library “haves” and “have nots.” This not was because of the popularity of ebooks among users, but due to the skyrocketing cost of serials and electronic resources cannibalizing the print book budget. 

I cannot say for sure what is happening at newly renovated academic libraries across the country--I wish ACRL would tell us that in their annual member survey questions–but it does appear from library literature and websites that there has been a seismic shift, even in the largest and most well-funded libraries, from emphasis on collections, new publications or content–including digital resources–toward remaking the library as a kind of study hall offering customized learning environments (noisy, quiet, public, private, semi-private, low tables, high tables, sitting up or reclining, bright light or dim), and coffee bars, with various student support services tacked on.

Libraries have become the new student centers. Libraries even at our most elite and competitive institutions are making their collaborative and creative work spaces top-level menu items on their websites, touting their furniture on wheels, tables, couches and available study spaces, rather than focusing on their collections and scholarly content. 

Ten years ago, academic libraries would never have thought to devote prime real estate on their websites to promoting their comfortable couches, study spaces, workstations or assortment of tables.

Representing the library as a study hall or computing lab was considered precisely the wrong message to send to university administrators and faculty to maintain a healthy acquisitions budget (and respect for what we do).

Space, computers, support services and furnishings appear to be the most important features of Harvard’s main undergraduate library:

Research Help at Harvard’s famous Lamont Library is available only between the hours of noon and 5pm, while media help can be had from 9am until 10pm. 

Some older librarians may recall that from the 1950’s to the 1980’s, the Harvard Lamont Library generated core bibliographies of what undergraduate libraries ought to have in their collections, called Books for College Libraries. Now they are featuring movable furniture, whiteboards and armchairs. 

Yale’s Sterling Memorial Library, a Gothic Revival building with 16 floors of stacks and 4 million volumes, lets students know on its home page that it offers the following amenities (under “What’s Available”):

What’s Available:

Outdoor Space
Public Computers
Natural Light
Individual Tables
Large Tables
Individual Study Rooms
Group Study Rooms
Chalk Board/White Board
Absolute Quiet
Eli Express Delivery Location
Electrical Outlets
Conversation Allowed

One would think that one of the oldest libraries in the country with over 4 million books would have more interesting things to highlight than its natural light, tables and scanner. 

The focus on collaborative or group study spaces in libraries parallel broader educational trends which emphasize a greater degree of peer interaction, project-based learning, and providing real world work experience in the classroom. I do not mean to discount the numerous studies which show that students who study and interact with peers in college are happier, have a more positive outlook, and earn higher grades. It is only natural that students would want to study together, and the library is a logical place for this. But the library should aspire to be more.

Aside from being a place for collaboration and group study, the new university library is also typically envisioned as a learning laboratory where people from different disciplines gather together to tinker in maker-spaces and solve real world problems using 3D printers, laser cutters, and digital production studios. No one has called my library or come in asking for this technology. They have come in asking for books, though. 

While collaborative and more traditional text-based and individualized approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive modes of knowledge acquisition and learning, and can certainly co-exist in a library setting along with beautiful architecture, it nonetheless strikes me that the consistent focus in librarianship on dialogue, collaboration and consensus-oral modes of knowledge acquisition and transmission–over content, text-based and more individualized forms of learning, hearken back to a time before printing, books and libraries.  

If you thought libraries were unexciting places to be before, taking the books away and replacing them with more computers, more tables and chairs, seating on wheels, glass-walled study rooms, vacant space, engineered surfaces and whiteboards, are surely not likely to make them more interesting places to be. 

Don’t get me wrong. I love beautiful architecture. I like coffee. I like computers and technology–I was a developer and systems librarian back in the day, when things were much harder.  I love a good debate, and collaboration with others, especially others who know more than me. Who doesn’t like comfortable chairs? I just don’t believe that innovative architecture, cafes, computer labs, collaboration or comfortable seating can form a solid foundation for academic librarianship at a university, whose mission is to create well-rounded, educated people. 

I believe our primary obligation as academic librarians is to provide our communities with stimulating, active learning environments, both in print and online, that are content-rich, authoritative, and inspiring, and which encourage students to go beyond classroom instruction to become self-sufficient independent learners, professionals and scholars. 

alk is cheap? Well not anymore. Now, it requires video conferencing technology with hand-gesture recognition and brain-storming apps.63 Indeed, when people speak about library renovation projects, collaborative learning and videoconferencing spaces are often emphasized. It all sounds very promising.

But in an almost Orwellian fashion, we must get rid of books and paper, even the bulletin boards (“free speech areas”), in order to promote more modern, technically advanced and carefully monitored forms of expression which do not involve reading or writing. 

From a traditional librarian standpoint, much of this may make no sense. No one has come into my library asking for these things in recent years, but they have asked books–especially “book” books. No one has called about 3D printers or laser cutters either. They have asked for popular (leisure reading) books, which we do not have. We observe that people are more engaged in sticky note walls, the rebellion of the handwritten, than on slick graphics or modern spaces. We observe that when books are set out, people stop to look at them, even if they came in for some other reason. 

Let’s talk about collaboration. Realistically, how are we librarians to get people to collaborate? And once they do, how does this fulfill our educational mission as academic librarians? At the end of the day, are we not left with little more than empty spaces consisting of tables, chairs, computers and staircases? 

Admittedly, fewer people today are reading books, and reading is not looked upon as the sign of social status it once was. In fact, the opposite may be the case: reading books may be a signal to others that one’s time is not in demand by anyone. Despite its undeniable educational benefits, reading books is no longer viewed by the rest of society as productive activity. STEM has also had an impact, for university administrators associate research with activity in laboratories, not in libraries. 

Indeed, reading is often contrasted with productively working, interacting with others, or engaging in real-world problem-solving tasks.

Even in a university, there is often limited capacity for people to make a connection between reading and academic success. Perhaps no one in the world has tried to escape the negative stigma of reading more than librarians, who have fruitlessly tried to divorce themselves from reading for years to align themselves with information services since the 1980s. Despite MLIS degrees being peppered with Computer Science classes, Data Management, Data Visualization, Digitization, Web Design, and whatever else happens to be trending at the time, once we graduate we become the people who sit around reading books all day while waiting for someone to ask us a question. 

Practical, project-based, collaborative and hands-on, career-relevant learning at the university are now seen as superior ways to prepare students for the workforce of tomorrow, while book-learning, reading, or traditional lecture format are rejected as outmoded pedagogical methods. In Education, text and lecture based formats are eschewed for collaborative activity and group work to allow less prepared students to succeed in the classroom. 

Public libraries are also be vulnerable to a similar stigma with regard to reading. Sociologists have suggested that in today’s economy, busyness and overwork are status symbols, not leisure, enjoying cultural activities or reading books64 which may account for why the general public, when surveyed, express great interest in turning their public libraries into work spaces even when they do not necessarily have any real work to do. 

Libraries should strive to create a social context within which intellectual inquiry, reading and creativity are nurtured. 

In its defense, print still has many things going for it over ebooks, superior readability and visibility chief among its virtues–provided that you have a centrally located, accessible campus library. Print books can be more cost-effective for smaller campus libraries because the pricing does not include multi-user licensing or hosting in perpetuity on a third party platform which no one knows will be around in ten years.

Most importantly, though, is that “reading matter” placed front and center signifies to others that reading matters.

The presence of reading material in the library space signifies its worth and value. Ideally, one could browse the book in the library, but be able to download it to take it with you. 

Discovery & Its Discontents: The User Experience of the Modern Library Catalog 

Despite all of the emphasis on updating the library’s physical space in recent years, there has been comparably little attention given to the library’s online presence, the virtual library space, where at least 95% of our content resides. 

Indeed, the online presence of the library is pretty much ignored in new library construction projects, even where there is an effort to convert the stack space into study space, housing the old books offsite or underground, making the physical library collection less browseable. 

Robotic storage, sorting and retrieval systems are a costly solution being implemented today by large libraries, curiously at a time when most archival and low demand titles can be found free in digital form through Google Books or Hathi Trust. Investment in print now comprises less than 5.8% of academic library acquisitions budgets.65 In other words, there is less need now than ever before to enlist the support of robots and real estate to manipulate and store books, or to help retrieve and shelve them. Another thing is that these costly automated robotic systems typically replace the lowest paid workers, the shelvers and pages, quite often a person with intellectual disability who contributed more than his labor to the library effort. He enjoyed keeping the books in order, and greeted everyone with a smile, something a robot cannot do.

With a good collections, what users obtained from browsing the stacks and new books area was information and insight into the most significant titles in a discipline, a vantage point which is not readily afforded by our online catalogs, plumbing aggregators’ databases, probing various ebook packages, or scrolling through the results of our cobbled discovery tools. Earlier I discussed the limitations of the traditional library catalog when it comes to search, that most are not even capable of searching by relevance and currency  (“publication date”) at the same time.

The old library catalog has been eclipsed with a newer front-end called a discovery layer, or more fancifully, an “index-based Web-scale discovery tool,” which harvests records out of the catalog and indexes them along with records provided by our publishers, in an effort to afford users with single, Google-like search interface for all of the library’s subscribed and owned content. Increasingly, the discovery tool, or a discovery layer, is bundled with the library’s automation system, rather than being an add on. 

Library discovery tools do a poor job of visually representing the totality of the library’s collections to users. Users can discover items, but not collections, through this user interface. Increasingly, the metadata being placed into our systems by publishers is lacking key pieces of information which might allow our ebooks to be assembled into collections. 

Interestingly, in library literature, librarians are sometimes blamed for why discovery tools are not more popular with patrons.16 Research has shown that we don’t like them and our users prefer to go to subject-specific databases or use Google Scholar. 

Why don’t librarians like “discovery”? Is it because librarians are hopelessly tied to the “old catalog” with Boolean operators, and are unwilling to embrace change? No, apart from not being able to effectively promote the new, it is because we librarians know what is not showing up (that ought to) when someone performs a search. For various reasons, much of an academic library’s premium content may be either omitted or buried deep within the search results of our discovery tools, even with a librarian working to optimize it.67 EBSCO and ProQuest, two huge content aggregators, who each have their own discovery tool, refuse to work together to allow a seamless search experience.

Lack of visibility of new resources are our main issues with discovery tools, and it should be, but there are others as well. While they are called “index-based” tools, there is no dynamic indexing of the documents which are searched. Researchers may not be aware that they are merely searching a record of the text, not crawling the documents or even an index of the documents. This is one reason why the search experience going directly to the subject databases, where algorithms are performed against the documents, and are programmed for ranking documents against documents, is often more productive than going through a discovery interface. 

While it searches an index containing records of hundreds of thousands of items, the user is often able to retrieve only 10 results at a time, which is tedious to scholars who want to browse rather than refining their search to eliminate results. The “ranked list search engine” model is itself very limited when there are other non-hierarchical alternatives for citation data. Why can’t we get a grid view?

Discovery tools and catalogs have not really evolved much in the last 15 years, even though their purpose in the library has changed from being a convenient first dive in to the databases aimed at Freshmen and less experienced researchers, to functioning as a research tool, and finally, with the disappearance of the physical collection, serving as a primary means through which users are expected engage with the library’s online collections. 

From 2007-9, there was a period of innovation for library user interfaces. Some librarians may remember AquaBrowser, EBSCO’s various visual search tools, the award-winning Grokker by Groxis, WebFeat, and a host of federated search tools to help users visualize and visually navigate content in the library’s catalog and databases.

Grokker (2007-2009) was the best in its class, for its unique zoomable navigation interface, combined with a dynamic labeling and clustering engine (based on Lingo), provided a top down view of the data which you could click on and zoom to the documents. Grokker was brilliant. When I worked for them, I believed this model, or some other visual navigation interface, was surely the future of the library catalog.  

I’m hoping the next-gen library catalog will come to offer an improved Grokker-like browsing experience of the online library, with tools to assist scholars form connections and arrive at new knowledge, and interfaces which people will find captivating, invaluable and unique. 

The Content-Rich Library in the Age of Amazon

Dear ACRL: What are our professional standards for an online academic research library in the 21st century? 

Administrators often speak about the library’s going online or being online as a selling point, especially for marketing its graduate programs. But what does it really mean for a university library “to be” online?

Given the consolidation of library automation system software vendors, can we librarians even propose standards for our online catalogs and discovery tools, or must we simply accept whatever is given to us by our vendors? Given our current infrastructure, and our niche market status, how might new standards and applications for online libraries be developed and implemented today?

Bookshelf browsing, virtual newsstands (like Browzine), and other visual navigation applications to facilitate an enjoyable, intuitive browsing experience are overdue as enhancements to the OPACS of larger web-scale academic library management systems, as is personalization, the ability to present users with new content that is of interest to them when they come to the library’s site.

Certainly, the common limitation of ten results to a page, when the system boasts so many thousand relevant items, is tedious for users to navigate. There are alternatives to ranked search engine lists, such as those which cluster results, provide for disambiguation, and visual navigation for a more intuitive search experience. 

We might also benefit from what e-commerce already has to woo customers, presenting things they might like, and we also must be able to represent online an actual library collection as such, rather than simply presenting ways to conveniently parse though indexed metadata of third-party aggregated content so someone can find it, should they want to. That does not lend meaning and value to our content or our profession.

The user experience of a good collection–both in print or online–promotes creativity and independent learning, precisely the same sort of open-ended and unstructured creative exploration people are trying to facilitate though maker-spaces and more collaborative modes of instruction. We need to afford users a better user experience of the library online so that it can be more closely tied to education, not in terms of classroom learning objectives, but it in terms of disciplinary knowledge. We also must be able to effectively operate, in terms of presentation, on the level of titles and publications, not mere packages and aggregations. 

Many challenges are now before us. Within the field of higher education, much emphasis has been placed on real world learning and team-based projects as opposed to book learning and essay writing. Project-based learning, collaborative learning, active learning and other alternatives to traditional text-based learning are advanced by many universities as providing better preparation for the jobs of tomorrow. There is a downside to this hands-on approach no one mentions, that learning this way is inefficient. 

With reading, or “text-based learning,” students don’t spend time reinventing the wheel, rediscovering in labs the knowledge that is already known. The laws of gravity have already been discovered, we don’t need to spend the whole semester tinkering with model rockets to rediscover gravity. We don’t need to repeat the experiment, for it has been done enough times. Let’s read about it from an authoritative source and move on. 

As a society, seem to be returning to a kind of primitivism and literalism associated with backwards and oral cultures, where people actually can’t learn unless they see it and experience it for themselves. For various reasons many have guessed at, people are losing the will and the ability to read.68 This phenomenon has been dubbed “secondary orality,” a return to orality by post-literate societies. 

Investment in maker-spaces, media rooms and active learning labs in the new academic library space, in addition to the creation of collaboration spaces fostered by open floor plans, vaulted ceilings and light-filled atria, glass walls and technology (larger screens for shared viewing, special software apps, 3-D printers) are expensive, as is the expertise of architectural firms claiming to have special insight into getting people to collaborate and learn in these modern times.

But after the facility is built and the dust has settled, what then? Where are the impact studies by libraries who have fully transitioned to the new concept? Is it progress or regression? Is it the Enlightenment or a new Dark Ages? Does it produce literate people or promote ignorance?

From what I have been able to ascertain so far based on anecdotal evidence, is that no one in my discipline seems to know how to get people to collaborate, mentor and share knowledge once the old spaces are renovated or new facilities are built69, or how to differentiate collaborative learning from other less important forms of social interaction in order to arrive at measurable outcomes for our assessment plans. 

And, most importantly to me, it is not engagement with technology or with other people that academic librarians or academicians wish to foster, but engagement with scholarly and culturally significant books and articles, engagement with publications and the ideas found in them. We librarians and faculty want students to make connections, not so much with other people in the library space, or with us for that matter, but with the scholarly resources and authorities vital to their discipline and to important books reflecting the world around them. 

Of course, if more people are coming in, for whatever reason, even just to sit on our comfy couches, they are more likely to talk to a librarian who can then clue them in to all that which great content which is not visible to the eye. 

Nonetheless, I would love to see showcased in library literature new library architecture and software applications designed specifically around the concept of promoting discovery and engagement with library resources, with our content, both in print and online formats, rather with other people in open seating arrangements–with nothing to offer to the intellect, nothing to nurture the soul, nothing to inspire research, nothing to raise awareness of new publications, nothing to encourage leisure reading or instill life-long learning, and nothing to inspire scholarship. 

Without the capacity to present our users with a rich selection of materials that are of interest and relevant to them when they walk through our doors–without the ability to create content-rich learning environments–the physical library becomes a barren wasteland with furniture for studying or texting and hanging out, but nothing of substance to encourage intellectual curiosity, learning outside the classroom, or participation in a broader cultural conversation of educated people. 

Despite protests by library users and faculty when initiatives to eliminate print are implemented or proposed, and even after similar projects are deemed failures and the books are brought back–for example with the Cushing Academy’s celebrated bookless library70 71–this trend of getting rid of print, placing books out of sight, into underground storage lockers, into compact shelving, into low traffic areas, or incorporating them as meaningless abstractions into a comprehensive design scheme continues to trend upward in buildings called libraries.

ooklessness–or rather, lack of commitment to collections–as well as changes in how libraries are evaluated through their institutional assessment plans, has blurred the distinction between a library and an LRC (learning resource center) or LC (learning center), as the case may be.  Because college library booklessness has become acceptable, fashionable–equated with progress–all forms of bookless learning (innovation labs, maker spaces, news rooms, learning commons, information commons, media centers and “active learning labs”) are becoming more common in libraries on college campuses, replacing a large portion of the library or cutting significantly into its budget.

I would say replacing a large portion of the traditional library, but despite the enthusiastic participation of library directors in creating these promising new spaces, I’m not sure others in the college and university administration regard media labs, maker-spaces, and smart classrooms as belonging to, or the province of, the library. Librarians who resist these trends, either with personal skepticism or scholarly research (my answer to everything), risk criticism on many fronts, by administrators looking for ways to save money, by those wishing to be regarded by others as forward-thinking, by an insecure older generation fearing to appear obsolete, and most of all, by architectural design firms who are eager for commissions to design unique and expensive buildings called libraries.

Architectural rendering of a new modern library (can’t find the source, most unlibrarian-like of me!). This is a typical design, where books and resources are not visible in the entrance way or on the first floor. It is harder to promote content or cultivate readers in this sort of modern library space.

Library Journal, American Libraries and other library publications routinely showcase the new academic library architecture without ever mentioning the impact these vacuous facilities are having on acquisitions budgets, professional staffing levels and usage of resources. After new libraries are erected or renovated, and the ribbons are cut, the library appears to be reduced to promoting its (empty) spaces, their wheeled furniture, instructional and reference services (reduced to part-time or outsourced, and the reference desk may be a “welcome” or support services desk). 

I think it is great that libraries are striving to become more social places. I really do. Libraries were never really the stultifying study halls or book warehouses some new library advocates make them out to be.

Students have always been able to study and socialize in libraries, and relaxed food and drink policies have been the norm for most libraries since I graduated from library school in 1990. Many “traditional” libraries were built with cafes in them. There is nothing 21st century about the combination of coffee, books, and people, or comfortable seating. Drinks allow for minute mental breaks which are needed to sustain prolonged focus. 

What is new, especially in library literature, is the perception that physical books are impeding student success, the advancement of the library profession, requiring too much staff, standing in the way of the library’s becoming popular with students and/or risking turning the library into a “book warehouse.” It is a dark current that runs throughout academic library literature today, along with reminders that this generation of students never grew up reading books, so they are not likely to start when they go off to college.

Younger university administrators also are less likely to be champions of the library, believing that books are not needed in any format for students to be successful in their degree plans. In their minds, the success of online degree programs have largely proved the irrelevance of the physical library and print collections to the mission of the university. All students require are their textbooks and access to Blackboard.

With the way student- or academic success is defined, according to the business objectives of the university, it is difficult for library directors to get a strong toe hold. Many within a university administration do not understand or appreciate the extent to which a well-stocked, well-maintained library is a key marketing tool for the university, and that books contribute to the operation of the university as such. The library is the ultimate resource for demonstrating student-centeredness and care, precisely because many of the books in the library are there to support have the students’ own definition of success, not because they must be used to be successful in degree programs.

Because it is just a bit gratuitous, good library collection is perhaps the ultimate reflection of genuine student-centeredness on a college campus.

Nevertheless, for the first time in academic library history, books represents a burden that we librarians need to be liberated from. Books represent an albatross around our necks and our students’ necks. The rationale is, “Get rid of print,” and we librarians will be freed up to do more important things–like helping students (as if we’ve always not done both, thank you very much). Get rid of the books, and people will want to come to the library once again. Get rid of books, and our students will be forced to embrace new technologies and be better prepared to enter the workforce. 

Even though new titles are rarely available to libraries in digital format for many months after their print debut, the book is viewed as an outdated product 72 that many library directors and administrators are eager to distance themselves from for a variety of reasons–some valid and some not. 

Dividing lines are drawn over the role and importance of print books and the need to maintain collections, with professional staff often reluctant to say what they really think about plans to go completely digital. Those who resist risk being typecast as resistant to change, obsolete or technophobic. An example of this can be found in Lura Sanborn’s (2013) article “Bookless library?”:

Are there going to be growing pains and resistance? Sure. In fact, absolutely. A body at rest wants to stay at rest. There will be those embedded in print that wish to stay in print. Internally, there will be those who throw their hands up in the air and declare it is all too much, too complicated, and too difficult to simply keep up. What was shiny and astounding three years ago looks ridiculously musty at this point. Keeping up with and making the best decisions possible regarding digital text is hard, and there will be those who refuse to embrace the new. This is predictable behavior. Fifteen years ago, working as a student assistant at a busy university reference desk, I, and everybody on staff, knew “that professor” who never got over the movement from the card catalog to the OPAC. He would always call the reference desk when in need of a book, refusing-on some principle important in his mind-to learn to use the OPAC.

Evolution takes time. We can stick with what we have, or we can move to make it better. Case in point: iOS 7 is much more sophisticated and pleasing than the initial OS X. Should Apple not have evolved in order to keep a population afraid of the learning curve within their comfort zone? To compare, so too have advancements been made to many of the digital text interfaces available to libraries. And much like with Apple, the interface, quantity, and search capabilities just keep getting better.

Despite the strong movement forward, some still find the concept of a digital library uncomfortable. When the director of the Johns Hopkins Welch Medical Library announced last year that the library was going online only and closing its physical doors, the Johns Hopkins constituency shrieked and formed a committee (Nichols 2013). However, the transition has since moved along and from the outside looks both inevitable and wonderfully enviable (Michael 2013). Instruction librarians are in a discrete space, while the emphasis of the collection is on digital holdings. This model speaks to the essential, core functions of an academic library: collection and instruction. 73

Librarians may feel pressured to reiterate exaggerated claims about “the cost to warehouse a book on the shelf” each year–about $4.20–taken from a very impressive analysis done by economist Paul N. Courant, who was on the board of several large scale book digitization ventures 23 when published that study (2010), and concluded:

Finally, we note that the argument in favor of moving toward digital versions of books and sharing both electronic and print collections is further enhanced when we recognize that university libraries tend to be located on prime real estate, and that there are uses of central campus stack space—for classrooms, study, offices, and enhanced library services, among others—that would be far more valuable than using that space to store materials most of which are used rarely, provided that access to the materials in aggregate could still be provided reliably. 75

His figure of $4.20 per annum per book has been repeated so often at library conferences and in Power Point slides, even in Newsweek,76 it has become a factoid,77, a perfect example of what happens when articles are mined for information and not read critically for bias. He was selling digitization services, after all.

The real cost of ebooks for academic libraries. It is often assumed by college administrators and non-librarians, mainly based on their own experiences with Amazon and Kindle, that academic ebooks are significantly cheaper than print books. This is a common misconception. It is absolutely intuitive that they would be. While they typically are for consumers, they are not for academic libraries, unless they are titles that are no longer in demand (called “backlist” titles). 

Vendors charge institutions more for an academic ebook, even for single use. The cost of purchasing a recent (published in the last 3 years) academic title through a typical library vendor like EBSCO is 1/3 to 2/3 higher than the cost of the same book in print for single simultaneous use.

Take a look at this taken randomly selected title from EBSCO’s Collection Manager tool. Natural Gas Processing: Technology and Engineering is $146 for the print book paying full list price (librarians usually get a 20% discount for print books through their book jobber). The same ebook is priced at $177.60, $222.00 (for 3 simultaneous users) and $266 for unlimited use.

The markup on new academic ebooks varies, but the cost for a front list title is always more than the list price for the print version, even for nontechnical titles. This observation is confirmed by the e-book price index in the librarian’s bible of statistical data and book prices, Bowker’s Library and Book Trade Almanac. It states (2016) that:

In the academic market, it has always been assumed that e-books are more expensive than their print counterparts. Users might be surprised to find that the cheaper versions of e-books, available to consumers through such channels as Amazon and the Apple Store, are not available to libraries at similar prices, if at all. . . .

The high price for e-books is not that surprising as most pricing models for academic ebooks generally add a high percentage to the list price for the purchase of e-books. Multi-user licenses are an even larger percentage. In most situations, even-single user academic e-book titles are more expensive than their print counterparts.” 78

One explanation for the higher costs for institutions is that the vendor is providing hosting in perpetuity for the ebook–even if we do not want access to the book in perpetuity, we often must buy it that way. When libraries buy books, unless they are extremely large research libraries (and even then), they never buy with the idea in mind of having a book forever. Suddenly the cost of maintaining a book on the shelves doesn’t seem so bad.

Another factor is scalability, that many users could potentially access the book at the same time. This a great benefit for large academic institutions, but smaller and medium-sized libraries cannot benefit as much from economies of scale.

Ebooks usually do not represent a significant cost savings over print unless the library is buying a package of oddball academic titles, UK imprints, dated titles, or things that the publisher can’t move in print any longer, in which case the book is valued at less than list price for print. What goes into a content aggregator’s ebook package is based not on careful vetting by librarians but blanket publisher agreements. They are commodities, like soybeans. The success of the aggregator depends on negotiations with traditional print publishers to digitize, aggregate and monetize their back-stock, called “backlist” titles. These aggregations are not “collections” in a librarian’s sense of the word. They are merely chum-buckets of aggregated content no longer able to monetized in print by the publisher. Not there is not anything good in them, but they do not represent the current state of the discipline, nor do they pretend to.

I have been most impressed with EBSCO and ProQuest’s ability to discern which academic titles to hold out from their packages, knowing libraries will pay a premium price to buy these individually. How do they know the scholarly value of a title? They know. It is fascinating. They know exactly which titles to not include in their blanket ebook packages, which ones to not put in the buffet. It is very impressive, from a bibliometric perspective. I would love to take a tour of the Chocolate Factory one day. 

However, only those already familiar with a discipline, educated people, may appreciate the difference in quality between a package of academic ebook titles and an actual library collection. If the priority is providing relevant ebooks so students can complete a writing assignment, aggregates of ebooks are fine. If the priority is doing research in a discipline, they miss the mark.

Most academic libraries already buy large ebook packages, but deliberately excluded from these subscription packages are front list titles, newer titles and titles in demand, which the vendor hopes to sell to the library individually at a higher price. Better titles get added to the online platform at a premium cost to the library.

More concerning to me is that there is a psycho-social aspect of ebooks which discourages users from actually reading them. Since no personal investment appears to have been made in selecting the titles, and no great expense appears to have been made by the university to acquire them–since everyone outside the library believes ebooks to be dirt cheap anyway–why should our students place value on them? To them, ebooks appear to be items called up and used when needed to write a paper or complete an assignment, and then quickly forgotten about. Who reads them? There is no sense of permanence or influence, or that these titles mean anything to anyone. They are not intended to be “read” read, or remembered, or valued, they are not real, just something to be mined for quotes and citations. 

No one honestly expects others to have read or heard of an ebook they come across in an academic ebook collection, but the same is not the case with print books in an authoritative, up-to-date library collection. Print books are still seen as more “legit” in the eyes of young users, and they are correct: if it’s on the shelves in the library, at least a few other people think the book to be worthwhile.  

Students, like administrators, also think of print books as being more costly and believe ebooks to be “cheap.” It would never occur to a student that the ebook they click and scroll through, just as they do free internet resources and free books on Google Books, may have actually cost the library $250 or more, sometimes even hundreds or thousands of dollars (in the case of reference books). 

I can envision a library where print books are beautifully displayed, face out, covers glossed in mylar, in placed visible locations so people can see and browse through them, but with a “download the ebook” sticker on them. Maybe even a code they can scan with their phone to download the book instantly.

Tangible Outcomes from Intangible Goods:
Assessing the Value of the Academic Library 

Philosophies of librarianship are part of a larger trend of libraries requiring librarians to re-invent and market themselves to demonstrate their value at a time when the institution of the library, and its relationship to the rest of the university, is under increased scrutiny. 

Historically, administrations questioned whether their library was good, and perhaps how we librarians knew it was good, not whether a library was neededNo one was requiring personal philosophies of librarianship or annual self-justifications to keep one’s job, either (they don’t where I work, but at some university libraries they do each year). 

The decline in the perceived relevance of college and academic libraries, and with this, librarians, can be accounted for in many ways. The most obvious cause is an increased reliance by administrators and scholars alike on information resources found on the Internet. These days, neither the physical library nor the library’s website is the first place people come to begin their research. I myself often begin with Google Scholar (mine is set to link into my library’s databases, but still. . .), and I think most of my colleagues do, too. Often the library is utilized to gain access to the full-text of an article found online through Google Scholar.

Rather than checking our catalogs and online resources first, researchers find books they might like on Amazon and Google Books, or they locate book and article citations elsewhere, and then check to see if the library has them. People come to the library and the library’s website not as a starting point for research, but as a last resort to obtain a known item.

One reason is that our websites are not intuitive and our catalogs are not interesting (for students and scholars) to browse. As I see it, a modern library is a content provider like Amazon and Netflix, but, for various reasons, our catalogs and user interfaces have not evolved into the kind of intuitive, content-rich environments that might allow us to compete for our users’ attention with commercial entities whose websites people actually enjoy visiting and browsing.79 

The library profession has become dependent on vendors even for much of our professional development, our content, our systems and our web services. There has been so much industry consolidation, we don’t have much choice. We must deal with products and tools which do not integrate well with each other by design, because our vendors are in competition with each other. EBSCO won’t provide metadata to ProQuest’s Primo Central and ProQuest doesn’t allow EBSCO to automatically harvest catalog data to support EBSCO’s Discovery tool, EDS. 

We permit, even promote, branding (EBSCOhost, ProQuest, Gale-Cengage, etc.) instead of white labeling. We take it for granted that patrons will be driven away from the library’s website off to various 3rd party commercial platforms for doing research. We inadvertently end up with multiple (vendor-created) pseudo-home pages, as vendors–Credo Reference, SpringShare LibGuides, ProQuest and EBSCO–encourage the library to customize a landing page with their search own box on it. We are often forced to try to muster excitement for content labeled with strange acronyms (StatRef! GVRL, JSTOR, SFX. . . ) and our users readily suffer from platform fatigue.

Compounding the problem is the necessity to create responsive (scaled to mobile devices) websites, which has made it even more difficult to place content where users can see it when they land on our sites. It is more difficult to design websites to promote content–individual titles–events and services, because mobile friendly designs turn the home page into a screen sized menu. And, compounding that problem is the fact that library websites are often contained within, and constrained by, their institutional CMS. 

In the commercial world, content-heavy sites utilize specific strategies and technologies for marketing online content–for “wooing” their customers–and the 21st century library should be no exception. The library needs platforms which support greater degrees of personalization, presenting content that users might like when to they come to our websites.

Especially now, when Amazon and Google have raised the bar for shopping and search, our professional energies feel misplaced teaching students how to navigate the library’s antiquated catalogs and unintuitive websites as part of Information Literacy programs. We often emphasize techniques like using “Boolean search operators” and truncation as part of the IL curriculum–techniques already obsolete by modern search technology–rather than concentrating our efforts on developing more interesting, intuitive and innovative user interfaces, or focusing on interesting  titles–the publications themselves, not just the techniques needed to locate them. 

Libraries are in the process of becoming that which they hope to avoid, devolving into passive repositories, through ineffective marketing and poor designs which communicate that our own collections do not matter, despite what our users say and surveys show. I firmly believe that, even in this age of Google, scholarly content is what matters most to our users in the university, and this should be emphasized in the design of our facilities, our websites, and our assessment models.

Legitimization, Quality (Outcomes) Assessment, and the New Grand Narrative in Librarianship80

One of the most influential trends over the last 20 years in academic librarianship has been to devise new ways to assess library quality and effectiveness, and not just in-and-of-itself (i.e., “Is the library good?“), but within the context of the goals, objectives, and business management methods (“Quality Assessment”) employed by their parent institutions to evaluate institutional effectiveness, sometimes referred to as the “Institutional Effectiveness Plan” or “Quality Assessment Plan.”81

One person aptly referred to this phenomenon as the “outcomes assessment movement.” 82

This approach has also become a relatively new (since 2011) best practice, or standard, for academic librarians, as defined by the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL Standards in Libraries in Higher Education), the professional association for college and academic librarians. By the standard committee’s own admission, the 2011 standard 83 represents a shift in the way libraries are to think about assessment, in terms of methodology (must be “outcomes-based”) and emphasis (prioritizing the achievement of institutional and departmental instructional objectives, instead of those internal to the library):

These Standards differ from previous versions by articulating expectations for library contributions to institutional effectiveness. These Standards differ structurally by providing a comprehensive framework using an outcomes-based approach, with evidence collected in ways most appropriate for each institution.84

The bottom line is that ACRL’s new Standard is not a standard at all, but an imperative that we must align ourselves with our institutions and apply their assessment model to the library. 

According to ACRL, we are to adopt the goals, objectives and outcomes of our respective institutions, including other departments and even student affairs as our own to facilitate greater partnerships across institutional boundaries, and establish our relevance accordingly.85 And we are to demonstrate our effectiveness by measurable and verifiable (evidence) assessment outcomes tied to the goals of the institution.

Let’s consider regional institutional accreditation guidelines as a library standard, since ACRL SLHE asks us to use these when formulating library outcomes. If these guidelines mention anything about libraries, they are meant to be baseline or minimum standards, not something libraries can use to achieve academic excellence, or even “goodness.” For example, SACS doesn’t say all that much about libraries except we are to offer qualified staff, library instruction and access to “adequate” and “sufficient” resources and collections:

CR 2.9 The institution, through ownership or formal arrangements or agreements, provides and supports student and faculty access and user privileges to adequate library collections and services and to other learning/information resources consistent with the degrees offered. Collections, resources, and services are sufficient to support all its educational, research, and public service programs. (Learning resources and services)

“Sufficiency” and “adequacy” are not what professionals in any field strive to achieve. 

Would you go to a professional who boasts of providing merely adequate services? Institutional accreditation standards are not library standards for achieving excellence, goodness or quality. They are baseline, what earns you a “D.”

Also, because accreditation standards are intended to be minimum standards, if the word “library” is dropped and replaced by “learning and information resources,” as has already happened in several places in SACS,86 it is surely with the understanding that small colleges with limited enrollments, or online colleges, or vocational schools, can still obtain institutional accreditation for their programs even if they lack full-fledged libraries.

The wording of regional accreditation guidelines is not intended to be a checkered flag for universities to divest themselves of their libraries, or to downgrade them into less costly Learning Resource Centers (LRCs), which require neither a library collection nor professional librarians to operate or maintain.87 Nor is it intended to encourage the provision of merely adequate resources by the library–whatever might be construed as the defensible minimum needed to pass an accreditation review–even though, again, such brinksmanship might be lauded by an administration in terms of cost reduction, maximizing return on investment, and the achievement of institutional objectives. In most cases, academic libraries cannot simply “adopt institutional objectives as their own” without significantly compromising quality.

Without any qualitative standards for collections for academic libraries emanating from ALA/ACRL, how can library administrators make a compelling case to their administration that their libraries are not being adequately funded, specifically, that they are not able to provide adequate resources to function as a library should?

If libraries are not encouraged to have their own goals and objectives for excellence, their own standards for goodness or quality, how can they prevent existing library budgets from being cannibalized for institutional objectives that have little or nothing to do with the academic mission of the library?

any faculty members have decried the rise of “managerialism”88 or an increasing corporate orientation in the university.89 90 91 The best definition of managerialism I have come across is “an exaggerated belief by professional managers in the value of the management concepts and methods they use, regardless of the unique values, culture and methodology of the organizations they manage”; the notion, for example, “that the same principles, values and methodology can be applied to managing a university, a hospital, a TV station, a car factory, a chain of coffee shops or an army.”92 Some have argued that corporate culture threatens to undermine or erode the humanistic and intellectual ideals of the university.

There is tension between the business orientation and academic one at any university, although people in higher education have come to recognize that both perspectives are needed for the institution to thrive. The latter values deep thinking, scholarship, and knowledge as virtues in themselves–knowledge for knowledge’s sake–even if doesn’t lead to a specific outcome, aside from a more educated human being.

This is a sometimes referred to as a humanistic model because it supports the pursuit of knowledge to allow a person to reach his or her full potential, but not necessarily because it leads to a specific, predefined student learning outcome.

It does not ask, “Why do you want to know that?” “How is that related to your degree plan?”

At a university, academic librarians support student success, not just as defined by the university, but also as defined by the student, helping him achieve his educational goals and research objectives regardless of whether or not it is needed for a particular class assignment.

We support the student’s acquisition of disciplinary and professional knowledge, and therefore offer significant titles on a regular and timely basis, even if we cannot tell if this is helping students complete their degree pans. We also serve the faculty, whose research and publishing activity usually does not directly serve the business interests of university either. 

We also have an obligation to maintain a quality library in anticipation of use, in a perpetual state of readiness, rather than acquiring only that which is guaranteed to be used for a class, which is another way our acquisition strategies might not conform to a strict business model.

Publishing in peer-reviewed journals typically has little impact on enrollment, retention and graduation rates, the most pressing concerns for the college or university administration. (Research adds prestige to the university, but it has virtually no impact on undergraduate enrollment.) The more humanistic and academic goals of the college and academic research library (scholarship, life-long learning, etc.) and the more pragmatic goals of the institution might not line up very well. 

The library will always be a cost center, never able to justify itself financially though a measurable impact on GPAs and retention rates. In fact, operating within a strictly institutional or business framework, where the library’s goals have become one with that of their administration, the most successful and effective library manager could conceivably be one who spends as little as possible on library resources, but still manages to skate through an accreditation review. Sounds awful but I’m sure it happens. 

This isn’t good for students or faculty, or for libraries or librarians–who will surely have difficulty “partnering with faculty” (one of the stated goals of the new ACRL standard) if the materials that they and their students expect to find in the library are never there, if users are routinely compelled to use other libraries to access significant or core titles in their disciplines, or forced to buy the books they want or need to support their research interests out of pocket.

Over time, if collections are not maintained, demand for the library’s services will drop off, and suspicions by decision makers that the library or books or librarians are no longer needed will be confirmed by low circulation statistics. This will happen not because of changing times, or because of Google, but because the library will have been diminished by not buying anything new, by not being able to promote its resources effectively, and by deploying assessment tools that measure the wrong outputs or outcomes for an academic research or college library.

The new ACRL standard was intended to promote greater collaboration and to advance our roles as partners educating students and contributing to their success.93 However, real collaboration is a two way street: partnering is more than just our teaching information literacy courses or co-piloting courses taught by others.

Librarians have traditionally been recognized as partners in the educational process through the quality content and resources we provide. 

Yet, we lack a standard set of outcomes through which to evaluate the impact of collections (both print and online, leisure and scholarly) on student learning. This does not mean that collections are not a worthwhile, but that the assessment tools and standards available to us cannot assess their impact. 

More than ever, libraries need prescriptive standards of quality to to keep us from becoming redundant, competing with, or being absorbed by, other departments and entities on campus who are also focused on “student success,” our budgets and spaces re-appropriated for initiatives that have little or nothing to do with the library. From this perspective, rewriting our mission statements in order to adopt the goals and objectives of other departments and even “student affairs,” as ACRL recommends (as a way of promoting “greater collaboration”), seems like very poor advice.

Measuring the tangible impact of an intangible good. The business strategy of aligning with institutional goals and objectives, specifically institutional quality assessment plans, is particularly problematic for academic research libraries for the reason that the impact of their collections on users cannot be assessed through any objective measures that can be tied back to “student success,” as defined by the university’s quality assessment/enhancement plans.94

Years before the publication of the new ACRL standard, a similar approach was discussed in an often cited article by Sarah M. Pritchard, “Determining Quality in Academic Libraries.” Library Trends, 44.3 (1996):

Few libraries exist in a vacuum, accountable only to themselves. There is this always a larger context for assessing library quality, that is what and how well does the library contribute to the overall goals of the parent consistencies? The major objective for academic libraries, especially in an environment of increasing academic pressure, structural change, and technological innovation, must be to align themselves with the structures of higher education and the criteria by which these institutions are judged.95

Pritchard goes on to say, however, that despite higher education managers adopting the business methods of quality management, and the “micro-evaluation of libraries have given countless opportunities for detailed studies . . .”

. . . still lacking are agreed upon and objective ways to measure and incorporate library value into such processes as academic accreditation, educational assessment, and ratings of graduate programs.96

Today, academic librarians are still struggling to find ways to demonstrate their library’s relevance to their respective institutions, which usually translates into contriving ways to demonstrate our value within the context of institutional Quality Assessment plans.

By making institutional outcomes our exclusive focus, it is easy for academic librarians to forget who we are, and why most of us got our degrees in Library Science–which I doubt was to “teach Information Literacy,” “support the curriculum” or to “improve institutional outcomes,” or any of the other objectives found in librarian philosophies and in newly minted mission statements.97 Not that these are not worthwhile objectives, but they are too narrow, and they miss the point of the library.

Many of us academic librarians had hoped to enrich the lives of others, quite likely as ours have been enriched, through the experience of a great library, a library we ourselves enjoyed going to because, well, it was interesting, and made us feel connected to a larger community of scholars who were passionate about the same things we were, or with a brighter future for ourselves which we identified with. It provided a kind of personal transcendence. Great libraries are great because they have great collections which afford users with a great experience of self-directed learning to help them reach their potential in life.

This experience is what I call “the aesthetic.”

The aesthetic is the value-add which cannot be measured, the subjective experience of self-actualization and self-determination fostered by a great library collection. It is the thought that “this book was put here for me to find” by someone who knows or cares.

Of course, “greatness” is subjective and not measurable (there are surveys, of course, and usage stats), an aesthetic judgment, which are to be avoided when it comes to all types of quality assessment planning. It is the library sublime. The aesthetic is experientialThis poses quite a philosophical dilemma for libraries.  Aesthetic judgments, judgments about quality cannot be completely rationalized or measured.

As the philosopher Kant maintained, they are beyond reason. This doesn’t mean aesthetic judgments are irrational, but that rational modes of analysis can carry us only so far. In addition, libraries are compelled to maintain collections in a state of readiness, in anticipation of use; the sum of the whole–a collection–is greater than its parts, another challenge for evaluation.

Just because objective assessment of the impact of collections on our users cannot be assessed, does not mean that it should be ignored or is no longer a worthwhile goal for libraries to pursue. 

intialthe managerial art of objectifying what is inherently subjective and experiential, through inputs, outputs, outcomes, performance indicators, benchmarks, feedback, usage stats, metrics, documentary evidence and analyses, and then folding this meaningfully and compellingly to institutional goals and objectives, and last, into our own budgetary justifications in ways college and university administrators will ultimately appreciate, is the challenge now laid at our collective feet.

Libraries have always attempted to measure themselves and their services to evaluate their effectiveness, impact on users, or “goodness.” This is nothing new. Some have even criticized the discipline for its seemingly unbridled enthusiasm for measurement, for being “confounded from the outset” by false “certainties of empiricism” stemming from the fact it regards itself as a science, and takes as its domain information.98

For many reasons both theoretical and practical–whether stemming from professional orientation, need for greater accountability, or job insecurity–librarians already do tend to place great emphasis on empirical data, inputs (budgets, size of collections) and outputs (circulation, reference questions answered, usage stats), ratios (percent of budget spent to support certain programs, numbers of books per student per major) and performance measures which, regrettably, cannot ever be meaningfully tied to user outcomes, and which therefore “do not assist managers in providing a true picture of libraries to the lives of our users. . . “99

For many academic libraries, and particularly those in Southern states,100 “Quality Assessment” has presented new and interesting measurement challenges, tantamount to devising Rube Goldberg Machine that will, at the end of the day, reveal and heighten our impact on the much larger machinery of institutional outcomes assessment.

There is certainly a lot that could be written about Quality Assessment planning with regard to libraries, such as, how do we assess our assessment plans to know that they are good? Has the practice of assessing the academic library’s value through the rubric of institutional effectiveness been good for academic libraries and those who use them? Has this practice resulted in improved library services? How has it changed us, for better or for worse?

Rube Goldberg was a master of imagining complicated mechanical processes to perform the most mundane tasks, which could otherwise be performed with just a slight bit of human effort and common sense, for example, here a self-opening umbrella:


Cartoon by Rube Goldberg, famous for devising complex mechanical solutions to perform mundane tasks you wouldn’t want or need a machine to do in the first place.

I do not mean to suggest that there is an easy and obvious solution to the problem of assessment or accountability in libraries–or that one should not rely upon all available tools and reports to make informed decisions–or that objectivity is not worth striving for.

That’s a given for any library manager. We routinely compare ourselves, statistically-speaking, to our peers, and then try to figure out what they are doing better than us so we might improve. Strategic planning is an excellent tool for bench-marking growth. Setting and pursuing goals is vital to continuous improvement–who would not agree with that?

However, as the title of my philosophy statement suggests, I believe good libraries are about a very special kind of aesthetic user experience whose impact or value or information content cannot be measured in ways that would ever rationally justify them (libraries are intangible goods after all) from a business objective perspective. There is no cost/benefit analysis that will justify the expense of an academic research library. Therefore, I am especially mistrustful of reliance upon overly rationalized processes and externally imposed business measures like QA when it comes to library management, but most especially when they threaten to change the priorities of the academic library to value only that which can be counted, measured or valued by “the plan.”

If the library’s budget must be tied only to measurable, institutional outcomes of “student success” (graduation rate, retention, enrollment, persistence, employment rate, transfer rate, and other business objectives of the institution) or student learning success” (how well they students do on an information literacy test), this will change the priorities of the academic library into something that is not recognizable as an academic library.

The sort of accountability required by institutional quality assessment plans inevitably entails both measurement and outcomes, but the library profession has never been able to successfully arrive at meaningful measures linked to outcomes.101

And it isn’t for a lack of effort or focus on the problem, which are further exacerbated by a failure to recognize or accept that academic libraries are about the subjective experience of users- I call it “the aesthetic”–including browsing, familiarizing oneself with a discipline, reading for enjoyment (often because users find it interesting/significant/relevant), seeing what is new, reacting to the works and ideas of others, and, perhaps most cherished by users, “serendipitous discovery.”102

We librarians deal for the most part in the realm of private experience, in intangible goods, but we are expected to deliver, or provide an accounting of, our tangible value so university administrators can see a return on investment.103 If we do have measurable user or student outcomes, they are often contrived for the sake of satisfying our QA plan, and usually involve those charged with Public Service and teaching Information Literacy courses, because there is evidence of student engagement.

By what mechanism is the library evaluated, in terms of its impact, other than this limited intervention, or Reference stats? We cannot lay any claim to research and publications by the faculty, even though our resources and access services support them.

The quality assessment standards imposed on academic research libraries today are often missing the finer points of the academic research library, and really the purpose of higher education, which is to encourage learning and research that is not necessarily part of “the curriculum”–at least not yet–and to empower students to be independent learners.

We want them to feel as if they are standing on the shores of a vast ocean of knowledge and human experience, and that they are free to go in any direction they choose, to learn on their own. However, one unintended consequence of the imposition of QA on libraries at some institutions has been a reallocation of the library budget away from library resources, the collection–whose impact on students or outcomes cannot be effectively assessed or measured–toward instructional services, such as information literacy programs, tutoring, writing labs, and basic computer skills classes, and a variety of student support services which lend themselves to outcomes assessment more easily, especially in the short-term. 

Within the context of the institutional QA, libraries don’t get much credit for having resources, or even use of resources–only demonstrating tangible results (higher GPAs), and these “results” must occur within the time constraints of the plan.


Library assessment though the institutional QA Plan will make the library’s budget look fat, as its resources can’t be meaningfully tied to specific measurable learning outcomes.

Another issue fundamental to our identity as academic librarians is a commitment to students and faculty, specifically to the individual’s pursuit of knowledge. By adopting as our highest aspirations institutional goals as defined by external IE/QA plans (plans shaped exclusively by goals and objectives for institutional accreditation, rather than library standards), as ACRL has now advised104, we are moving away from a holistic model of librarianship, in which the user defines his success, towards one that is narrow, passive, unambitious and not actually user-centered, but institutional: we merely “support the curriculum” with “adequate resources” rather than (more idealistically) helping our students obtain disciplinary knowledge, our faculty keep up with trends in their field.

While this latter role is perhaps more pertinent to academic libraries supporting graduate research, there are corollaries at the community or junior college level, where librarians support, or have traditionally supported, the co-curricular and extra-curricular, self-directed interests of our students: leisure reading, current events, bestsellers, graphic novels, biographies, life skills and “how to’s” for young adults transitioning into adulthood and into a professional workforce.

These may not be directly, meaningfully or demonstrably tied to the curriculum, but they make the library attractive and valuable to students, and habituates them to independent learning. It also exposes them to other points of view and ways of thinking, and enhances their educational experience, and has an impact on their lives, even if we cannot prove with any certainty that it does.

One would assume that promoting self-directed and independent learning at all levels–from leisure reading for college students to original research for publication for upper division and graduate students–would be fundamental to the core values of lifelong learning and academic achievement, principles we are supposed to be instilling in students.105 But even the seemingly straightforward concept of lifelong learning has been co-opted by what Elmborg alludes to as a “neoliberalist” agenda, as opposed to the more idealistic values traditionally upheld by the library profession:

Life-long Learning is enshrined in the consciousness of librarians through the ALA’s Core Values. However, bundled in this phrase are two concepts that exist in great and probably irresolvable tension: there is the ‘hothouse flower’ of idealistic values, the vision of the ‘people’s university,’ critical consciousness, and critical practice; and there is the ‘weed’ of progressive administration, narrow and unambitious in terms of its impact on individuals but able to construct an inescapable domain of discourse that places all value within the context of economic development and the assessment of data-driven outcomes.

From the administrative point of view, lifelong learning is most easily translated into a task-driven, programmatic initiative that can be easily assessed and measured for short-term success. From the pedagogical point of view, lifelong learning is translated through great effort into the problem-posing, one-on-one exploration whose outcomes are fuzzy and may not be measurable for years to come. It might be naïve to suggest that libraries should defy the spirit of the age, denounce neoliberalism, and make a pure stand for social justice and democratic pedagogy. However, it seems equally unwise to embrace a neoliberal worldview that is openly hostile to almost everything that libraries profess to represent in their core values.106

While I cannot speak to the “neoliberal” vs. “social justice” perspectives Elmborg raises–I see the dichotomy more as a top-down business/managerial/quality management perspective vs. more scholarly / humanistic / user-centered approach–it does seem pretty clear no matter how you express it, librarians as well as our professional associations like ACRL are embracing certain philosophies, strategies or best practices that may be detrimental to the success or survival of libraries in the long term.

Beyond the Curriculum? Academic librarians are, presumably, scholars committed to scholarship and the principle of academic freedom. We help students pursue knowledge and achieve their chosen educational and learning objectives–whether it leads to a degree or not.

    • We support scholarship and disciplinary knowledge as ends in themselves, as their own rewards, not because they lead, necessarily or measurably, to a degree, or to “student success” within a certain prescribed time period (e.g., within the boundaries of a Quality Enhancement Plan).
    • We librarians are glad that you used or accessed the item, but we don’t investigate in any formal way the extent to which you benefited from it, the extent to which it changed you, how it improved you, how it helped you write a better paper, or even if you found the item useful.
    • Along the same lines, if you request an article from us to get from another library, we don’t ask you to prove that you need it for a degree program or to complete an assignment before we request it.
    • We do not discourage you from visiting other libraries in order to hold you captive to just what we have if we know that there is a collection nearby which might better serve your research interests. We do not withhold that knowledge, or keep you ignorant just to increase our own stats. We are not a “business.” We don’t view other libraries as our competitors.
    • We do not say, “Why do you want to know that? That has nothing to do with your major.” Or, “You’ll have to get permission from your professor before we process your ILL request.” We support a more individualized definition of student success than course or degree completion.

Now, my own theory of library usage–which has to be at the heart of any philosophy of librarianship–is that people who value and use academic libraries, our constituents, do so because they benefit from immediate access to relevant, significant or interesting content, especially within the context of a meaningful and carefully considered collection.

To our constituents, academic libraries are not primarily “about” the services provided by librarians, or information, at least not in an obvious way. They are about collections. They are about books, regardless of format. They are about publications. They are about media. They are about content. 

When people look forward to going to library they are not imagining helpful librarians.

No, they are thinking about interesting books and collections which they hope and expect to find there; things they like and find meaningful to them. Library services are always secondary to collections, to the extent that services exist to support and promote use of resources and publications. Collections do not exist to support librarians’ services. Getting assistance from a librarian always was a very small reason people went to a library, public or academic. 


    • I am not ready to declare collections to be dead or obsolete just because “the library can’t buy everything,” because large portions of it may exist in a different format, or because resources can’t be linked to assessment outcomes.
    • I am not ready to use library services as the sole indicator of quality for an academic library, or even the primary mode by which we academic librarians demonstrate our impact on students–even if evidence of direct student engagement may be the easiest way to justify ourselves.

The academic library is not primarily about inputs and outputs, users “getting answers to specific questions” or “satisfying specific information needs”–the latter are good things, of course, but despite the empirical information model which has often permeated our professional thinking about library operations–is not a correct model for any type of library, public or academic.

To scholars and regular library users, libraries are about the preservation of knowledge, sharing knowledge, facilitating the discovery of knowledge, and providing support for the creation of new knowledge through the quality of its collections.

The academic library is fundamentally a collection of research that inspires research.

To the extent that it does this well, it is successful as an academic research library.

Why Academic Libraries Still Matter in the Age of Google

I am asked this awkward question not infrequently in graduate Research Methods classes. I know this can be my cue to promote myself and my services, and say, “Librarians are your greatest resource, and that is why libraries still matter!” But I do not believe this to be true. I am helpful, but I am not their greatest library resource. If I were, the library would be spending over a million dollars on me and not on EBSCO, ProQuest, Gale, Elsevier and SAGE databases. 

Anyway, the entire library shouldn’t revolve around “me” or my services (some days it seems like it does, but I know it doesn’t). I want people to benefit from and enjoy the library itself, without me. Thankfully, many people use the library regularly without ever needing to consult with a librarian, because if they did, that would be frustrating both to them and to me. Even back in the day before Google, which I am old enough to remember, few who used the library ever needed to consult with librarians. Most users managed to navigate to the resources they were seeking without our help, and most came in to browse and stimulate their own creativity and interests, not necessarily to find answers to questions. They were pursuing knowledge of a subject area or inspiration, something to like, not answers. They come to wander and stimulate their own creativity.

When I speak to students, I am merely the messenger. I try to represent good published authorities and the peer-reviewed word. I represent resources which impart disciplinary knowledge. That is what the academic library as a whole ideally does better than Google and Google Scholar.

In a university library, students, aspiring scholars, and newcomers to a field of study benefit from familiarizing themselves with what books, journals, publications and publishers others regard as influential, significant or authoritative in a field of study, as opposed to say, what rises to the top of a Google query, a content aggregator’s database, or even our library’s discovery tool.

I really don’t care if we can retrieve 10,000 titles on “Health Administration” from our databases if we don’t have–or are incapable of making students aware of–the most significant, authoritative and relevant sources in their field of study.

Awareness of authorities and trends in a discipline defines a person as a professional. Libraries have a vital role to play in this aspect of a student’s professional education, but only if we are able to present selective, quality collections as such.

Through a well maintained collection, catalog and web presence, students and scholars benefit by seeing what is new and interesting in their field of study, because doing so inspires their own creativity, research, teaching, and the acquisition of disciplinary knowledge. The kind of disciplinary knowledge obtained through a good academic library collection is a very important part of an aspiring professional or scholar’s education; it should never be limited just to what is taught in classes, or prescribed by a curriculum.

The curriculum is the minimum requirement, not the upper limit, of what students can or should strive to learn when they attend an institution of higher education.

The library is a vital part of the education of our students. Apart from providing the student with disciplinary knowledge, including that which may fall outside of scope the courses taught at that particular college or university, the library allows students the opportunity to apply their newly obtained curricular knowledge in ways that are personally meaningful to them.

Librarians are increasingly asked by QA plans to define themselves, their roles and their collections narrowly, in terms of measurable targets of student impact, in terms of what they do (services), not in terms of what they have (collections), even though what many of us do, or believe we should be doing–in addition to helping students of course, is creating and sustaining an exceptionally good college and academic research library collection.

Most surprisingly, we are even prompted by our own professional standards to redefine ourselves in terms of “institutional, departmental and student affairs outcomes. . . . student recruitment, retention, time to degree and academic success” (ACRL, SLHE, 2011, 1.1-1.6)–the university’s business objectives, as opposed to something more idealistic and perhaps less demonstrable within the plan’s reporting period: support for independent learning, knowledge, scholarship and the intellectual life of the university campus.

So then, after rewriting our library mission statements to express alignment with institutional objectives, as ACRL SLHE suggests we do, it is still not clear how we are to develop the recommended metrics and performance indicators to demonstrate contributions to “student recruitment, retention, time to degree and academic success,” without fundamentally altering the library to become something which is not an academic library, but something more along the lines of a tutoring center.

You can’t embrace the mission, goals and objectives of departments outside the library and just assume this will be good for the library or its constituents, or the university as a whole.

It would have been preferable to me had ACRL also succeeded in making the “library” part of the library less expendable through its various publications and roadshows teaching librarians how to make a case for themselves.

I mentioned earlier a trend in the literature of library assessment of marginalizing the role and value of collections, or proclaiming them to be irrelevant to the success or quality of the library. Although we try to carve out new roles, in most instances, computer labs, tutoring, student affairs and online learning are handled by other entities on campus. The only thing that makes the library unique, relevant and effective to our users are our collections, our scholarly content, and the provision of support services related to these. 

A number of articles in library literature discussing service-oriented assessment techniques for measuring quality also justify the services-only approach by arguing that libraries cannot continue to grow their collections, and therefore must focus on expanding services to justify their value.

Many of these articles use an epigram from Danuta A. Nitecki (“Changing the Concept and Measure of Service Quality in Academic Libraries.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 22.3, 1996), “The measure of quality based solely on collections has become obsolete.” Danuta sets up a straw man to exaggerate service-orientation, for if you go back and read the article no librarian ever equated library quality with “size of holdings”–we all know better than to do that.

But the very idea that services can be completely disassociated from the collection and evaluated as autonomous business units presents us with a false dichotomy (collections v. services, having vs. doing). For one thing, there is interconnection between “library collections” and “library services” which cannot be glossed over.

    • Obviously, if your collection is inadequate, your users must resort to interlibrary loan for items which probably ought to be in your circulating collection. ILL service may be heavily used, responsive and popular with your patrons, but you are still providing users with poor service if they must resort to borrowing materials that should be in the library in the first place.
    • In information literacy classes, we teach students how to evaluate resources, with currency being a factor. A dated or poorly maintained collection reflects poorly on our own instructional objectives and professional competence. 
    • The number of questions received at the service desk should not be confused with, or used to justify, the “value” of library services. A high number of questions relative to resource use are often signs of unresolved problems and poor customer service, not evidence of value.

Another motive for minimizing collections in favor of services within library quality assessment plans is the difficulty evaluating the impact of collections on students (in terms of measurable results which contribute to their “success”), whereas with library instruction, a some kind of test is possible to show that students 1. have attended, and 2. learned something. There is evidence of student impact. The emphasis now is to move away from passive support through resources to direct engagement with students to be able to better document how the library is directly contributing to student success.

However, student success is more often than not a euphemism describing the extent to which a student is progressing in his degree plan, not a measure of a student’s learning, extra- or co-curricular goals and activities, or his academic or professional growth outside of graded classwork. It is not a holistic view of the student, his success, or his education.

In reality, the library profession–and historically, our professional commitment to “access”–has always supported a more holistic view of students and their education than the college or university administration: Libraries and librarians help students achieve their educational, intellectual and personal goals. We help them achieve success on their terms. If they want to read a book, we try to get it for them. We do not judge and refuse service if we think it is not part of a class assignment. And this is a good thing for a university.

We can’t pretend to know what the future holds in terms of career opportunities for our students. Nurturing the passions and interests of our students may ultimately be what leads to their success in life–not necessarily their practical Nursing, Health Administration or Respiratory Therapy degrees. Perhaps they will prepare themselves in a career or a field of study not yet established. I recall a time when there were no degrees in Computer Science, and all programmers were self-taught through whatever books and resources were available.

We talk about promoting innovation and entrepreneurship. There is no better place to cultivate that spirit than the library, where there is real freedom to pursue individualized learning, knowledge and ideas.

The research library should not set as its highest objective “support for the curriculum”–the minimum needed for students to complete assignments–but should express as overarching commitment to disciplinary knowledge and academic achievement.

Now, many believe that the application of similar sorts of “quality assessment/quality management” techniques to K-12 education, with performance indicators, outcomes, standards, testing, tracking and recording for the sake of reporting back into a system, has not resulted in improved educational outcomes in the classroom, because the curriculum and methods of instruction have been changed in order to meet the needs of the assessment tools.

Assessing the impact of the library through some kind of matrix or rubric, where the only thing of value is what can be measured (what many university assessment plans require), is an impossible task for a library, but external pressures for greater accountability will ultimately transform it to become a remedial support or learning center, rather than a place people enjoy visiting, where they see themselves and their interests affirmed, nurtured and supported though a library’s investment in books.

We say that “Libraries transform lives,” but proving that is another story. Libraries offer intangible goods, very much like knowledge and education–well, before education was redefined as a collection of discrete and measurable tasks tied to standardized test learning objectives so it could be “assessed.


Yes we have usage stats, but one never really knows the full impact of the library, its programs and its collections on users, especially on students. This is obviously a big and troubling problem for a library when it comes to evidence-based assessment methods.

    • Some students may choose to attend schools with a larger or nicer library, but we will never know whether the size or quality of the library factored into student recruitment. Did they choose that school because it offered a better library?
    • Some people may be motivated to change majors or go on to graduate school, some may develop a passion few people outside the ivory tower think about–like medieval semiotics, or “Is there really a Catholic literature of the South?” But we will never know the role of the library in terms of nurturing this passion, contributing (or not) to student success or “retention.”
    • One day, in a school library, a biography of Hamilton crosses a student’s path; years later, a Broadway musical is born. All the library may have to show in its assessment plan was that on that day a book circulated.

We can’t assess the impact of a library without assessing the impact of the collection on users, a task on par with measuring the subtle gravitational waves from the Big Bang or something out of Chaos theory. Collecting data demonstrating the impact of the library’s collection on students, especially according to “measurable targets,” is difficult, perhaps impossible.

In fact, academic libraries have never been able to arrive at standardized measures and metrics to determine if a library is “good.” We simply benchmark ourselves against peer libraries, comparing their usage stats to ours, and try to figure out their secret sauce.

We must now demonstrate through evidence that we contribute to the business goals of the university through a Rube Goldberg Machine of Quality Assessment planning. When we hit upon just the right metrics and measures, it will be bound to attract enormous crowds at ALA conferences curious to see how it all works.


Library Assessment Plans are often a Rube Goldberg Machine

Let’s resist the temptation to teach to the test, to so eagerly re-establish the roles and priorities of the academic library and its librarians based only on what is achievable through evidence, performance indicators and outputs, and what can and cannot be measured within the context of what is, essentially, a business model–whose relevance to education, teaching, research and scholarship has never been proven, and has already been placed into question by many (citations forthcoming).

Let’s not adopt as our goals and objectives those of other departments and other entities within the university to create redundancy, in an effort to more closely “align ourselves with them,” as ACRL SLHE advises, without at least considering the impact this may have on the our own customers and constituents, considering whether we are meeting the needs of the scholarly community we serve.

And let’s not be fearful of mission statements that are bold and visionary, making reference to things that cannot be quantified, such as “knowledge” and “creativity.”

Let us begin with the premise that libraries are intangible goods, offering intangible benefits to our community of users, rather than starting out with a management principle that if it can’t be measured, counted or assessed, then it is not a worth pursuing or has little value.

Consider that many goals in life are worth striving for, even if they are widely held to be unachievable: objectivity, beauty, wisdom, insight, truth and knowledge, to name a few.

Without consideration for the aesthetic and subjective element, libraries become boring, prosaic and perfunctory, a collection of what will be sure to be utilized in the course of a semester (or whatever time period is determined by “the plan”)–a collection of Norton anthologies, textbooks, courseware, test prep study guides, and a standard set of online databases required for accreditation.

The pleasure of coming upon something new and unexpected but deeply meaningful to the user, the subjective human element to collections which defy a vendor’s institutional profile, or just sharing with a fellow reader, are what makes a good library good to present and future scholars.

Good library collections are (just a bit) gratuitous. The problem with managing the academic library strictly according to the numbers–similar to the problem of “teaching to the test” in education–is that the library will fail to be a good library if ALL it does is pursue and measure only tangible outcomes.

We can and should gather stats on usage and solicit input from our users, and yes, we should compare ourselves to peers to try to continuously improve, but we (and the professional organizations who represent us) should recognize and proclaim the fact that the library’s impact on students and scholars cannot be ever accurately measured, reduced to data points or KPIs, or translated to a dollar value that would ever justify our cost.

It is an intangible, but intangible does not make it inconsequential.

A university library that is well-managed, stimulating and up-to-date facilitates learning and helps students grow independently, as self-directed scholars. It inspires research, which brings prestige to the university. It is what makes the university a university. It also attracts students, especially graduate students. But try as we might, libraries cannot be concretely or tangibly mapped to higher enrollments, student achievement, increased retention, improved graduation rates, the focus of most university strategic or quality assessment plans. 

The Library as a Place for Inspiration and Exploratory Discovery:
An Aesthetic Philosophy of Librarianship Explained

The most frequent, positive, and meaningful experience of academic libraries is through the user’s experience of a content-rich environment (i.e., a “library”) where independent learning, discovery, exploration, knowledge creation, sense-making and insight are likely to occur.

Although some librarians prefer to rationalize, intellectualize and objectify their own practice or contribution in terms of information services–responding to reference questions or providing instruction–scholars and regular library users most often think about the library is personal discovery.

What people experience and value about academic libraries are primarily their own responses to a collection of works which they perceive to be relevant and interesting to them. Academic libraries are, in essence, collections of research that inspire research. If there is no discernible collection (but simply an aggregation of content) and it does not inspire people. It does not inspire research. It is human nature to care about what others care about, which is why curation adds value and intellectual interest to a library. 

As much as some librarians may rationalize user behavior in terms of information-seeking and problem-solving–as if researchers are trying to be efficient, like mice running through a maze to get a piece of cheese–I believe that good libraries, those that people want to use, are inherently “aesthetic” in Kantian sense: if they are good libraries, they are places of insight, revelation, transcendence (time/place/culture) and self-discovery. If they are good libraries, people want to use them and are really in no hurry to get to the exit. It is the librarian’s duty to facilitate this experience called “scholarly research” or discovery, which is often deliberately inefficient and enjoyable to the person doing it–unless they must consult with a librarian to gain access to something they want, in which case they are already frustrated.

How John Leinhard (Engines of our Ingenuity, Episode No. 1089) describes the value of art museums applies just as well to how people experience a good library: They allow us to enter into a “liminal state” of mind where we are opened up to new ideas and possibilities:

We all live in need of ideas. We all have problems to solve. At some point, most of us realize that, when our problems need creative solutions, they cannot be attacked with purely methodical tools. Method takes us down familiar roads. Creativity means seeing the shrubbery-shrouded side roads that we ignore by habit.

The hardest thing in the world is to leave the highway and float above the land. Music, theater, sculpture — they all cut us loose from the road of method and common sense.

The so-called creative leap isn’t a leap in the dark — without antecedents or stimulus. Rather, it happens when we find a liminal state, on the very edge of awareness, where ideas arrive without order or hierarchy. In that mental world, cowpaths are as important as freeways. And one way to find that creative state is to give ourselves over to art.

Inside the museum, we lay aside our shopping lists of needs to be met. Art serves us when we leave our supermarket lives to wander the woods, eating the unexpected nuts, berries, and wild fruit.

The information model made popular twenty-five years ago, when library studies morphed into information science, was a very convenient but limited model of what a library is and should be.

According to that model, people come to the library to satisfy information needs–or get assistance fulfilling requirements for assignments–rather than seeking a kind of self-directed experience “wandering through the woods and tasting the unexpected berries.”

When taken literally, this pragmatic philosophy of librarianship–which defines patron motivation to satisfying some immediate need, and the role of the librarian to satisfying that need–has had repercussions in how libraries are managed, designed and funded today, such as a singular focus on doing while discounting the importance of having, e.g., the right titles, an exceptional collection, displayed in ways that are appealing to users.

No amount of “doing” on the part of librarians can compensate for not having, because “having” is a core function of a library.

Patrons don’t come to the library primarily for our services. That is merely a legitimizing myth of our profession. Even before the Internet, a time which I remember, people used the library without asking for assistance. They come for resources relevant to their interests, and to keep up with what’s new in their field of study. 

I believe it should be our mission as academic librarians to create that special place where people feel stimulated, inspired, supported, and encouraged to go beyond the curriculum to become whoever and whatever they want to be in life. Libraries help people realize their potential.

Even a small library with a small budget should strive to immerse students in a world of ideas.

One of the best academic library mission statements for a college library I have come across is this:

“Dedicated to enriching the life of the community through the expansion of knowledge and creativity.” (Woodbury University Library, Burbank, CA)

It is a beautiful mission statement for a beautiful library (scroll way down to see a picture, or click the link above to go to their library website).

This one is really good too:

“. . . advancing scholarship and teaching through the collection, creation, application, preservation, and dissemination of knowledge.” (Harvard Library Mission & Strategic Objectives)

Today, if one conducted a national survey of ACRL mission statements, many would mention Information, Information Literacy and Information Services, “empowering students in the Information Age,” but few would mention collections or knowledge, more durable goods than the commodity of information.

Building Content-Rich Environments. Many enrolled in academic programs today would rather browse for books on Amazon and Google Books than in the library catalog. They would rather search for articles and information on Google (and Google Scholar) than in the library’s electronic databases. Libraries must afford a better, more interesting, content-rich online browsing experience.

For starters, what if the library’s home page looked more like this, emphasizing our content:


and less like this, emphasizing the librarian and library services:


Make sites more about the content that our users might want or find appealing, less about us librarians and our services. Make it a site that appeals to scholars and scholarship.

Ideally, the library’s mission statement, and the goals and objectives stemming from it, should embrace strategies for actively acquiring and promoting resources, and for using technology to put materials before our users’ eyes, because that is an important part of what a library does–not providing access to materials if and when they are requested. We have an obligation to our users to maintain a library in anticipation of use, and to provide them with a quality collection.

At the college level, the library should expose students to core titles and authorities in their chosen field, to disciplinary knowledge, to key publications, not merely to information in the abstract.

By providing access to everything “on demand” but acquiring nothing, we are essentially abnegating our roles as librarians and as educators, and creating a bland environment that is neither aesthetically pleasing nor conducive to learning. Offering a quality collection is one of the most important ways librarians add value to their user communities. 

Putting “the Library” back into Librarianship.

Librarians may not be able to compete with Google or Amazon, but I believe there are things we can do to make our libraries a lot more appealing to our constituents:

  • Encourage browsing. Put books where users will see them. I believe that good libraries actively promote awareness of the significant titles in a discipline and knowledge of recent trends. This is a core function of libraries, not optional. You can’t sit back and subscribe to ebook Central and be done with it. Browsing the shelves and the online catalog of a good college library helps students learn about a particular discipline in ways that retrieving a random assortment of books documents in response to a query can’t.
  • Make the library stimulating to the senses and the intellect. Good libraries have never been merely a repository for books, any more than a museum is a repository of artifacts. Just as with museums, aesthetics is vital to our success–especially now that there are so many other places for users to find and access information. By aesthetics, I am not referring merely to the attractiveness of the walls or the furniture, but to the subjective user experience of the library as a whole, including how interesting, useful and significant the library collections are or appear to be when patrons walk through the doors or land on the library’s home page. By all means though, if your users like music, play music. Serve coffee. Make it smell good. Make the library a destination.
  • Stop treating all questions as “information requests.” If stats are up at the Reference desk merely because signs were taken down and never replaced, or because people can’t locate what they are looking for on the shelves (stacks and collection is not maintained), or don’t know where to go to search the catalog or how to search it when they get there, or because the printer is broken, well, it all may look very good on paper (we’re responding to all these questions!) but the reality may be something very different. 
  • Stop using “Information Literacy” classes to compensate for poor user interfaces and antiquated systems. Rather than concentrating effort and energy on Information Literacy to teach students how to navigate our antiquated and unintuitive systems, we should be conducting usability studies of our website and library and working towards making them more user-friendly to begin with. No one needs a class to know how to search Amazon or Google. Why should the library’s website be any different?
  • READ. Turn your users on to new things they might like. Librarians should never stop reading, never stop growing. You are the voice of the collection: familiarize yourself with it! Read, recommend, reach out. Learn what your faculty might be interested in, keep them apprised of new publications in their discipline.
  • Invest in New User Interfaces. Libraries must start paying as much attention to the architecture of their websites as they do to the architecture of their buildings. 21st century libraries don’t have 20th century websites, static pages of text and hyperlinks. Our websites are often an ad hoc assemblage of various competing vendor-branded resources, platforms, interfaces, tools (e.g., SFX, “classic” catalog, LibGuides, “Literati by Credo Reference,” EBSCO Host, STATRef! and JSTOR ) and proprietary applications that don’t work well together, causing needless confusion among our users.
  • Focus on Content. Create libraries physical and virtual that are content rich environments, fun for patrons to explore.

Putting the Library back into Librarianship means offering intuitive, content-rich websites and facilities (“libraries”) that people actually enjoy coming to, to see what’s new in their areas of interest, or to learn more about a field of study or discipline.

Information Literacy and Instruction. A large study of California college library mission statements in 2006 “Thinking Boldly!107 concluded that many library mission statements have replaced “building strong collections” with “teaching information literacy.”

Reference and other types of Public Service librarians have always taught students, and always performed instruction, formally in classes and informally at the desk. This is nothing new or innovative, except that over the years the name has changed from “Bibliographic Instruction” to “Information Literacy” to “Library Learning” and these days we sometimes teach people about the use and evaluation of Internet sources. However, never before has teaching received such intensive focus by our professional associations and literature.

Many Philosophies of Librarianship today place exclusive emphasis on teaching, specifically teaching Information Literacy.

This is a pretty typical PoL:

I acknowledge that libraries as an institution have a broader purpose, but in every library, librarians exist to teach people how to access and use information. Our role as educators and teachers is what makes us unique. In short, I see the heart and soul of libraries in information literacy.– Kim, “Our Philosophies of Librarianship,” In the Library With The Lead Pipe. Oct. 17, 2012. 108University libraries who can afford it are hiring “Information Literacy Librarians” and “First-year Experience Instruction Librarians” to teach Freshmen the basics of how to find, evaluate and use information.

The emphasis on Information Literacy in the library profession can be attributed to many things: more good information available on the Internet, sense that books are going away, the decline of Reference services, and even a shift in emphasis in running libraries and universities as businesses, or according to a business objective model, where the only thing that matters is what can be demonstrated to have had an impact on student achievement (student success as defined by the institution).

This sounds really good in principle, but we have no means of demonstrating the value and impact of our collections within this framework, because usage stats and circulation have never been able to be correlated with outcomes in any meaningful way. A business objective model is synonymous with undermining the value of the collection and everything in the library whose impact on student success cannot be meaningfully measured through this assessment model

Librarians must be able to demonstrate their relevance to the university or college in light of assessment plans and a common perception that everything–at least, everything that their students might need to complete assignments–is online. Library directors are under pressure to demonstrate the library’s impact on students in terms of measurable results, which places more emphasis on instructional services.

What is most interesting to me is how now so many older librarians (since I am one, I can speak freely) express utter disdain toward the traditional library and print, arguing that it costs x amount of money to “warehouse” each title/year “just in case” someone needs it–preferring an “on-demand” or “just in time” library service model, where access to the book is provided as needed–but then the book goes away, rather than hanging around collecting dust. 

There seems to be no shared concept of the value of a good collection, and the presentation of a collection to users, which had been fundamental to the principles of collection development. There is no concept of the library anticipating use and stimulating demand for its own resources.

Once treated with a kind of reverence as works, books have now become dusty, unclean and obsolete, a whole lot of trouble to keep on the shelves and not worth the expense. They say that online and on demand is what the library should be in the 21st century. Books are a thing of the past, with only 0-13% of the academic library budget now going to them. With library collections rapidly shrinking into a generic and predictable selection of vendor packaged content (which don’t require staff to manage), it is easy to believe that teaching (or rather “instruction”) and empty spaces for collaboration is all we have left.

One can easily anticipate a time in the near future when only the largest schools will afford their students with the rich intellectual experience of what we used to call a library:


while others will offer a web page with links to databases and be done with it.

Bookless libraries: progress or decline?

No one seems to have given much thought either to the visceral appeal, effectiveness or impact on student learning of a library without physical books, or more importantly, whether user experience of an online library provides comparable educational, motivational or psychological benefit to its users. We know that users often assign great personal meaning, often spiritual value, to their happenstance discoveries in the stacks, which they sometimes value more highly than what is retrieved systematically.

At this time, modern, very spacious minimalist libraries without physical books are in fashion, and those libraries that have books are drastically reducing their numbers and placing them on the periphery, into storage, or completely out of sight, making it more difficult for patrons to discover them, undermining the browsing experience and reducing learning opportunities. 

The University of Chicago’s Mansueto library, pictured below, stores books out of view (books are stored in an underground bunker, retrieved by robotic pages), a return to a time when the call number was actually used to call for the book.


The new Mansueto Library at the University of Chicago. Books are stored in an underground bunker, retrieved through an automated system.

This is not an isolated case. “How to re-purpose empty or underutilized space in your library” (since collections are shrinking and books will be gone) could be the subtitle of most professional conferences on the 21st century library. Now that print books are going away, research libraries are resembling waiting areas, such as airports or hotel lobbies, or modern open concept workplaces.

At the Mansueto Library, which serves as the primary research library at the University of Chicago for students in the sciences and the humanities, there are no works on display to celebrate scholarship, to stimulate interest when users walk through the door, to encourage independent learning, or help students and faculty keep up with trends in their field.

From this traditional librarian’s perspective, the Mansueto presents intellectually sterile environment, the antithesis of what a good library should be. Honestly, wouldn’t you rather be here, in a beautiful space with the weight of tradition at your back, without all that sunlight glare on your laptop, and still have access to the same online databases?


Woodbury University Library, in Burbank, CA.”Dedicated to enriching the life of the community through the expansion of knowledge and creativity.” What a wonderful mission statement.

Unfortunately, the highly acclaimed multi-million dollar glass facility (nicknamed “the blister”) named after billionaire donor Joe Mansueto (the founder of the Morningstar news agency), is what many in our own profession also believe a modern library should be: rational, efficient, impersonal and technological, glass and steel.

It also symbolizes a logical trajectory of the library profession from a focus on works and collections created and maintained by and for people–humanistic values–to “information in the abstract.” While ideas and works transcend time and place, information (like news) is inherently transient and continuously updated, it has no lasting value, so there is no need to preserve it for the future.

It is also the embodiment of a philosophy of librarianship encouraged by the library profession over the last 25 years which:

    • regards information services and libraries as interchangeable
    • defines services narrowly and in a reactionary way, merely responding to the information needs of students and faculty
    • stresses the function of librarians as existing apart from creating and maintaining exceptional academic and college libraries
    • fails to recognize that good libraries are conceptually much more about ideas and publications than information in the abstract.

After encountering so many philosophies of librarianship and academic library mission statements which offer nothing more than “teaching information literacy” and/or “providing information and resources to support the curriculum,” I realize I do have a philosophy of librarianship which has to do with my commitment to creating and maintaining an exceptionally good academic library.

My philosophy of librarianship began in 1987, about the time when library science graduate programs across the country were either closing down (most famous was the closure of the library program at Columbia University, which at the time of its decision proclaimed the MLS to be merely a vocational degree not worthy of being at a research institution), or else reinventing themselves as schools of Information Science–taking the “L-word” out of their names and course descriptions–and adding basic programming, SQL and DOS to the curriculum.

Over the years, “iSchools,” the new library schools, would continue to add more information theory and technical computing courses to the traditional library school curriculum, including object-oriented programming, data mining, data management, Information Retrieval, web development, “Ontologies and the Semantic Web,” digital asset management and health informatics, digitization and data visualization. But no matter how technical, relevant or cutting edge the curriculum, employers continued to associate the Master’s in Library and Information Science with traditional reference work, filing, or something anachronistic and entirely useless to the business enterprise. 

After completing my Master’s degree in Library and Information Science in 1990, I returned to graduate school and took courses in the burgeoning discipline of Information Science, and also MIS (Management Information Systems) in the School of Business. I returned again, this time to the community college, in the late 90’s and early 00’s to study computer programming, web development and database management, which were what my cohorts in iSchools were learning. 

When I first enrolled in Library School in 1987 my interests were traditional: rare books and manuscripts (RBMS), along with antiquarian prints, Reformation history, Christian Humanism, medieval scholasticism, Neo-Latin, 18th century philosophy, 19th century Romanticism, English literature, art and art history, illustrated books, history of printing, descriptive bibliography and cataloging. 

In the late 1980’s and early 90’s I’d studied a few years of Latin and Ancient Greek, was in graduate school, and was a part-time book scout for used and out-of-print book dealers. I subscribed to AB Bookman and tried to fulfill requests. I scoured library sales. I liked to see what books were in demand. I had been following the book and print market for a long time and was eagerly attending antiquarian book shows in Chicago, Boston and San Francisco. Of course, I collected books. Any new city I visited, I looked forward to visiting the used and out-of-print bookstores. I loved Lexington Avenue in Chicago and visiting the Graham Arader galleries (always enjoyed visiting the one in Houston). In the 80’s, the art market was booming, and with it, demand for antiquarian books and prints. I loved the library, prints and printing, and most of all, the intellectual history that went along with them.

I went on to study more Latin at the graduate level and eventually migrated over to Medieval and Reformation History, thinking I could put my Latin to use. I gravitated to Church history, medieval scholasticism and philosophy. I hung out with seminary students whom I met in Classics Departments. I discovered at big state schools that my academic interests were, by most people’s standards, conservative, but I was not aware of that until I was confronted with “herstory.” I did not want to set out to blur the distinction between the sacred and the profane. I didn’t seek anorexic saints or Lesbian nuns. It isn’t that I was religious or dogmatic, but I wanted truth, not someone’s political agenda. Not wanting to learn how to “subvert patriarchy” or “divine women’s voices from the language of male denigration and misogyny”–the focus of graduate seminars in Medieval History–I decided to invest my time and resources into a library degree, mainly with the idea of becoming a Curator of Rare Books and Special Collections, or something where I could work with Latin and primary sources, and perhaps, over time, defend the historical record that others seemed to be working so hard to subvert.

Librarianship for me and many other academic dropouts may have been a career of last resort, but it just seemed like a more intellectually honest profession and better aligned with my scholarly interests, and I was always in the rare book room anyway, where as far as I was concerned, much of the real scholarship in the Humanities was being done.


In Library School at the end of the 80s, I took my “Introduction to Information Services” class where we were discussing the role of libraries in society and their importance for delivering quality information to people. Libraries schools back then were keenly interested in re-defining traditional library work in terms of information access and delivery. Whatever the type of library, we were taught that the output of library services, whether public, academic or corporate, was information. Most librarians accept this as a truism, for it is a chief plank of MLIS program, a bridge that connects librarianship with something theoretical, valuable, relevant and modern. Only it is untrue. The academic library is about knowledge, not information. 

Libraries are not primarily about information, or information seeking behavior. They are not about discrete transactions. The are about imagination, art, beauty, inspiration, wisdom, sharing, human experience, meaning creation, goodness, community, history, insight and knowledge. They are about fostering different types of creativity.

It was troubling to me at the time that the fundamental logic, or philosophy, of library services at seemed to hang on a self-validating, circular premise:

People go to the library to get information, to satisfy an information need–even if the need may not ever be fully or consciously realized by the library user.

The rational was that if people come to the library, they have must an “information need,” even if it was unconscious. It was up to the librarian to translate their ill-defined, poorly articulated, and unconscious information needs into questions that could be answered quickly and efficiently using the library’s resources.

As a life-long user of libraries myself, I was never comfortable with this anti-intellectual and inaccurate assessment of libraries or its users. 

Because here’s the thing:

    • If the library is a good one, people are motivated to come to it, not simply to obtain information in response to a question or an information need.
    • If the library is a good one, people come to be stimulated (and to stimulate their own creativity), to explore possibilities, and to stay connected with scholarship, and even to have the opportunity to discover new things, very often inefficiently and serendipitously by the act of browsing.
    • If the library is a good one, people will enjoy browsing and seeing what’s new in areas that interest them.
    • If the library is a good one, books and journals are placed before the user in a way that is immediate, aesthetically pleasing, intellectually stimulating, and emotionally gratifying.

But only if the library is a good one.

Good libraries are not, fundamentally, about getting information the answers to pre-formed questions, but about stimulating new questions, raising new possibilities, and presenting new ideas to the user

Libraries should invite users to explore. 

Library assessment models are often based on a transactional service model which does not capture the way academics, educated people and life-long learners actually use libraries, that is, not to find answers to pre-defined questions, but to stimulate scholarly activity and their own creativity.

If the college or university library fails to deliver that kind of experience to its users, it fails as a library–regardless of how many Info Lit classes are being taught, for example, how much relevant information can be pulled out of databases in a response to a question, or how many transactions there are at the service desk. 

Unfortunately, what passes as “libraries” today may meet accreditation requirements, provide abundant access to information on virtually any topic, provide ample resources to complete assignments–but if this is ALL they do, they will fail to inspire a culture of learning across a college campus.

Erasmus of Rotterdam, 1526, by Albrecht Durer

The importance of the Library as Place (and its Website as a Destination)

My philosophy of librarianship is to maintain a special place, a “library,” where people are delighted and inspired by what they find there. 

I believe that outside of a corporate setting, the physicality of the library is still important, because done right, it is affirming to individuals, and especially to students who may be struggling to get through school, and to seasoned researchers who may feel that no one cares about their passionate concerns in life except for those few scholars working in their same area. The academic library represents an ideal. It is the sanctum sanctorum which needs to exist apart from the mundane world.

It is sanctuary of intellectual and artistic endeavor, and it keeps students from becoming too distracted by the real world–which too often tells students that what they are doing (pursuing that expensive degree) is a waste of time and money, that they should be out there making money, pursuing short-term goals offering more immediate rewards. The physicality, permanence and material expense of books, signifies respect (dignitas) for works so much more than anything conjured up out of a database in response to a user’s query. It signifies that other people care about academic pursuits. 

Good libraries improve retention and encourage academic success. At my institution, I am amazed and impressed that students burdened with multiple jobs and small children and financial hardship and limited support systems, along with limited job prospects and mounting debt, can stay positive and focused on their studies.

I do not think administrators fully grasp the ameliorating effect that this glorified study hall of books, a place unlike an office space or any other building, can have on students, particularly on at risk and disadvantaged students. The traditional library reinforces the values which keep students in school. It shows respect for students and for the scholarly enterprise.

Far from being an anachronism, the library symbolizes in a tangible way opportunity and possibility and a better life. It also helps them connect with someone associated with the university when everyone else on campus has gone home (It’s 3am during finals week, but we’ve left the light on for you. . .).

The library not only allows people to connect with others in their field of study, past and present, but it affirms the value of scholarship: people wrote the books, people published them, people selected them and continue to care for them, each step along the way conferring value on the work in the same way a frame and layers of matting confers value and importance to a work of art.

Well-furnished libraries, with collections that appear to be grown and maintained with care, confer value, respect and dignity upon the academic endeavor and the people who were and are part of that process.

Bad libraries, on the other hand, convey that academic studies are a waste of time and money. Stacks full of dated materials, no books or new books, overly restrictive circulation policies, limited seating areas, empty and underutilized space, negative signage, broken computers and equipment, an ineffective and poorly maintained website, run-down facilities, “dead zones” and all other signs of benign neglect, serve to reinforce a student’s and faculty member’s sense of ambivalence and low self-worth as scholars.

While good libraries function as a hub or commons, reinforcing academic interests and pursuits and stimulating new research, mediocre libraries feel stagnant and lifeless, and drive students away–not just from the library, but from the university.

The library is a microcosm of the macrocosm of the academic quality of your institution.

Good Libraries offer meaningful collections. A second tenant of my philosophy of librarianship is that library services are not primarily about providing access to information, but rather about providing access to good collections built with deliberation and care (these collections can be physical or virtual or a logical combination of the two).

Our users experience and judge the quality of the library by our collections, not by the discrete bits of information which can be pulled out of the chapter of an ebook or journal article on demand, or in response to a question. They judge it by whether the library has in its collections the key titles in their field of research, and if the library stays on top of scholarly trends in their field.

Above all else, libraries should be interesting places. Do patrons see titles of new books and on the covers of journals which stimulate curiosity and interest? Does the library provide services to make it easy for scholars to keep up with issues and ideas? Is the library a stimulating place for users to browse?

My mission and purpose as a librarian is to do what I can to support the fragility of scholarly research in a time when the value of information, precisely because of its widespread abundance, has undergone a serious deflation—and with it, the value of libraries and librarians.

So long as librarians continue to espouse an impoverished and excessively passive “information services” model of librarianship–where what we have to offer is “access on demand” to various “information resources”–or about some sort of customer service / collaboration facilitator–a library’s value to a school will continue to be put into question. 

Soon libraries will be entirely virtualized and outsourced to our vendors, who will be quite willing to provide our students with unlimited access to information, 24/7 chat, and Information Literacy courses on demand.

Libraries are about creating and maintaining unique content-rich learning environments, both in person and online, where people can expect to experience “library goodness.”

  1. “Defining Excellence in Academic Librarianship at USC (DEAL at USC) / Your Philosophy of Librarianship.” University of Southern California Library.
  2. Kolowich, Steve. “Bookless Libraries? Technology leaders and librarians consider how the digital age changes the physical space and role of one of higher education’s oldest institutions.” Inside Higher Ed. Nov. 6, 2009.
  3. “Nation’s First Bookless Library on College Campus is Thriving at UTSA.” UTSA Today, Accessed 27 Feb. 2017.
  4. Dwyer, Liz. “Are college libraries about to become bookless?” Web log post. The Daily Good. N.p., 13 July 2011. Web. <>.
  5. Riley, Sharon. “Academic: New Florida University Unveils Bookless Library.” Library Journal 139, no. 15 (Sep 15, 2014): 13-n/a,
  6. Hack, Husna. “‘Bookless libraries’ – has it really come to this?” Christian Science Monitor. N.p., 17 July 2012. Web. <>.
  7. Abadi, Mark. “A Major US College Is Moving Almost All of Its Library Books off Campus, and It Represents a Major Change in How Young People Learn.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 18 Jan. 2019,
  8. See for example,
  9. Lara Ewen,“Show Us Your Beautiful New Library.” American Libraries Magazine, 2 Jan. 2020,
  10. Wilders, Coen. “Predicting the Role of Library Bookshelves in 2025.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship, vol. 43, Sept. 2017, pp. 384–391. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2017.06.019
  11. Graziano, Frankie. “Yale Students, Officials Clash Over Future Of On-Campus Library.” Connecticut Public Radio,
  12. Prensky, Marc. “In the 21st-Century University, Let’s Ban (Paper) Books.” Chronicle of Higher Education, Nov. 13, 2011
  13. I am mainly thinking of Alma and OCLC, but Marshall Breeding confirmed in an email that no academic library system he knows of supports ebook browsing.
  14. Schmidt, Janine Developing a Library Collection Today: Revisiting “Collection Evaluation, the Conspectus and Chimeras in Library Cooperation,” Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 47:4, 2016, 190-195, DOI: 10.1080/00048623.2016.1250598
  15. Karen Harker, Janette Klein, and Laurel Crawford, “Multiplying by Division: Mapping the Collection at University of North Texas Libraries” (2015). Proceedings of the Charleston Library Conference. ;  Harker, Karen; Klein, Janette & Crawford, Laurel. Multiplying by Division: Mapping the Collection at University of North Texas Libraries, presentation, August 7, 2015; ( accessed November 23, 2020), University of North Texas Libraries, UNT Digital Library,
  16. Foster, Anita K. “Determining Librarian Research Preferences: A Comparison Survey of Web-Scale Discovery Systems and Subject Databases.”  The Journal of Academic Librarianship. Volume 44, Issue 3, May 2018, pp. 330-336.
  17. Coleman, Jim. “The RLG Conspectus. A History of Its Development and Influence and a Prognosis for Its Future.” The Acquisitions Librarian. Vol. 4, 1992, pp. 25-43.
  18. Karen Harker, Janette Klein, and Laurel Crawford, “Multiplying by Division: Mapping the Collection at University of North Texas Libraries” (2015). Proceedings of the Charleston Library Conference. ;  Harker, Karen; Klein, Janette & Crawford, Laurel. Multiplying by Division: Mapping the Collection at University of North Texas Libraries, presentation, August 7, 2015; ( accessed November 23, 2020), University of North Texas Libraries, UNT Digital Library,
  19. Johnson, Michael and Traill, Stacie. “Classify All the Things: Enhancing LC Classification Data for Better Collection Assessment and Management”. In: ELUNA 2018 Annual Meeting, May 1-4, 2018, Spokane, Washington.
  20. E-book Bibliographic Metadata Requirements in the Sale, Publication, Discovery, Delivery, and Preservation Supply Chain A Recommended Practice of the National Information Standards Organization, NISO RP-29-202X, Available for Public Comment: June 18-August 2, 2020,
  22. Bailey, Timothy P., Amanda L. Scott, and Rickey D. Best. “Cost Differentials between E-Books and Print in Academic Libraries.” College & Research Libraries. Jan. 2015, p. 8.
  23. “On the Cost of Keeping a Book,”
  24. Nitecki, Danuta A. “Space Assessment as a Venue for Defining the Academic Library.” The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, vol. 81, no. 1, 2011, pp. 27–59. JSTOR,
  25. Association of College and Research Libraries. “Connect, Collaborate, and Communicate: A Report from the Value of Academic Libraries Summits.” Prepared by Karen Brown and Kara J. Malenfant. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2012, p. 16.
  26. The concept of library goodness goes back to a landmark article by R. H. Orr, Measuring the goodness of library services: A general framework for considering quantitative measures. Journal of Documentation, 29(3), 315-332.
  27. Lynema, Emily, et. al., “Virtual Browse: Designing User-Oriented Services for Discovery of Related Resources,” Library Trends, vol. 61, no. 1, 2012, p. 218-233
  28. Since the 1970s, the Library of Congress has provided publishers and librarians with free cataloging for all print books prior to publication. These records include an LCCN call number and typically three LC subject headings. They will do this for ebooks only if there is a print equivalent.
  29. Nitecki, Danuta A. “Space Assessment as a Venue for Defining the Academic Library.” The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, vol. 81, no. 1, 2011, pp. 27–59. JSTOR,
  30. Association of College and Research Libraries. “Connect, Collaborate, and Communicate: A Report from the Value of Academic Libraries Summits.” Prepared by Karen Brown and Kara J. Malenfant. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2012, p. 16.
  31. Stewart, Christopher. The Academic Library Building in the Digital Age: A Study of New Library Construction and Planning, Design, and use of New Library Space, University of Pennsylvania, Ann Arbor, 2009. ProQuest,
  32. Ibid., p. 85
  33. Ibid., p. 84
  34. Ibid., p. 88
  35. Morris, Keiko. “How Stairways Promote Collaboration-as Well as Having a Walk-On Role.” Wall Street Journal Online. 13 May 2015, Accessed 19 Mar. 2020.
  36. Cohen, Dan. “The Books of College Libraries Are Turning Into Wallpaper.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 28 May 2019,
  37. Anderson, R., 2011. Collections 2021: the future of the library collection is not a collection. Serials, 24(3), pp. 211–215. DOI:
  38. Sanborn, Lura. “Bookless library? I raise you the building.” eContent Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 2, 2013, p. 6+ Retrieved from
  40. “Consultant: League City Needs Bigger Libraries.” Community Impact Newspaper, Bay Area Edition, Jan. 2020, p. 16
  41. Lara Ewen,“Show Us Your Beautiful New Library.” American Libraries Magazine, 2 Jan. 2020,
  42. Reference to the popular book, Thornburg, David. From the Campfire to the Holodeck : Creating Engaging and Powerful 21st Century Learning Environments, John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2013. ProQuest Ebook Central,, p. x
  43. Moss, Michael. “The Library in the Digital Age.” Digital Consumers: Reshaping the Information Profession, edited by David Nicholas and Ian Rowlands. London, Facet Publishing, 2008, pp. 72-3
  44. Nitecki, Danuta A. “Space Assessment as a Venue for Defining the Academic Library.” The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, vol. 81, no. 1, 2011, pp. 27–59. JSTOR,
  45. Nitecki, Danuta A. “Space Assessment as a Venue for Defining the Academic Library.” The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, vol. 81, no. 1, 2011, pp. 27–59. JSTOR,
  46. Dowdy, Clare. “Culture – Nine Stunning Contemporary Libraries.” BBC, BBC, 20 Mar. 2019,
  47. Magee, Jake. “Without a library bond, League City staff assessing Helen Hall Library’s needs.” Community Impact Bay Area, Feb. 6, 2019.
  48. For example, in October 2015, the President of the American Library Association said as the opening statement of her editorial in American Libraries, “At ALA, we know that the future relevance of libraries and library professionals will depend on what we do for people rather than what we have for people.” Feldman, Sari. “The Future of the MLIS.” American Libraries, Nov.-Dec. 2015, p. 5
  49. Anderson, R. (2011). Collections 2021: the future of the library collection is not a collection. Serials: The Journal of the Serials Community24(3), 211–215. DOI:
  50. A good library collection in this context does not necessarily entail ownership, persistence, or format, but rather that items are deliberately selected based on their value according to objective criteria which would allow for transparency, predictability and consistency.

    What this means is that users should have a pretty good feel for what items are and will be included in the collection based on the other items that are there, and librarians should be knowledgeable about the collection, not just know how to summon relevant resources forth from databases when called upon to do so. Collections present users with knowledge of the publication activity and authorities in their discipline. Good library collections have an intentional feel to them: they are not ad hoc accumulations of materials, or passive aggregations of academic content.

  51. Anderson, R., 2011. Collections 2021: the future of the library collection is not a collection. Serials, 24(3), pp. 211–215. DOI:
  52. Sanborn, Lura. “Bookless library? I raise you the building.” eContent Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 2, 2013, p. 6+ Retrieved from
  53. Kenny, Brian. “So You Think You Want to Be a Librarian?” Publisher’s Weekly. May 3, 2013.
  54. Daniel, Katherine, et al. “Library Acquisition Patterns.” Ithaka S+R. Ithaka S+R. 29 January 2019. Web. 8 April 2019.
  55. Wilders, Coen. “Predicting the Role of Library Bookshelves in 2025.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship, vol. 43, Sept. 2017, pp. 384–391. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2017.06.019.
  56. There are several studies comparing usage of DDA with library selected materials, but I am not really referring to that so much. This is a very impressive study, though: Walker, Kevin W. and Michael A. Arthur. “Judging the Need for and Value of DDA in an Academic Research Library Setting.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship, JAI, 31 July 2018, In there, effort is made to evaluate DDA vs. traditionally selected titles based on a number of criteria, and the conclusion is that DDA titles provide greater ROI than traditionally selected titles; however, one question I have is whether the faculty and graduate students who once collaborated with librarians on acquisitions are utilizing DDA instead.
  57. Rebecca M. Sullivan (2010) Common Knowledge: Learning Spaces in Academic Libraries, College & Undergraduate Libraries, 17:2-3, 130-148, DOI: 10.1080/10691316.2010.481608, p. 135 “. . . innovative partnerships” such as “writing and academic support centers, teaching and learning centers, disability coordinators, diversity centers, service learning initiatives, undergraduate advising programs, and digital centers.”
  58. Ellis, Lindsay. “Texas University Libraries Renovate to Keep Student Interest.”, Houston Chronicle, 13 Jan. 2018,
  59. Watanabe, Teresa. “Universities Redesign Libraries for the 21st Century: Fewer Books, More Space.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 19 Apr. 2017,
  60. The Hunt Library Story,
  61. Temple University. “Temple’s New Library Is on the Rise.” YouTube, YouTube, 14 Mar. 2018,
  62. Association of College and Research Libraries. “Connect, Collaborate, and Communicate: A Report from the Value of Academic Libraries Summits.” Prepared by Karen Brown and Kara J. Malenfant. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2012, p. 16.
  63. “Library Design Showcase 2012: Collaborative Learning.” American Libraries Magazine, 28 Feb. 2012,
  64. Silvia Bellezza, Neeru Paharia, Anat Keinan, Conspicuous Consumption of Time: When Busyness and Lack of Leisure Time Become a Status Symbol, Journal of Consumer Research, Volume 44, Issue 1, June 2017, Pages 118–138,
  65. Daniel, Katherine, et al. “Library Acquisition Patterns.” Ithaka S+R. Ithaka S+R. 29 January 2019. Web. 8 April 2019.
  66. Foster, Anita K. “Determining Librarian Research Preferences: A Comparison Survey of Web-Scale Discovery Systems and Subject Databases.”  The Journal of Academic Librarianship. Volume 44, Issue 3, May 2018, pp. 330-336.
  67. A good comparison of the leading discovery tools can be found here: Council of Chief Librarians, California Community Colleges. “Discovery Comparison Review,” Spring 2016
  68. Crain, Caleb. “Twilight of the Books.” The New Yorker, 16 December 2017,
  69. See Rebecca M. Sullivan (2010) Common Knowledge: Learning Spaces in Academic Libraries, College & Undergraduate Libraries, 17:2-3, 130-148, DOI: 10.1080/10691316.2010.481608
  70. Digital School Library Leaves Bookstacks Behind”
  72. “How Hunt Library Redefined the Library for the Digital Age,”, slide 5
  73. Sanborn, Lura. “Bookless library? I raise you the building.” eContent Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 2, 2013, p. 6+ Retrieved from
  74. “On the Cost of Keeping a Book,”
  75. I quoted from the pdf, but it originally appeared here in print: Paul N. Courant and Matthew “Buzzy” Nielsen, “On the Cost of Keeping a Book”, The Idea of Order: Transforming Research Collections for 21st Century Scholarship. CLIR Pub#147. June 2010, p. 102
  77. an assumption or speculation that is reported and repeated so often that it becomes accepted as fact.
  78. Barr, Catherine, and Karen Adams. Bowker annual library and book trade almanac. Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc., 2016. 360. Print.
  79. Lately, vendors of Library Management Systems have been concentrating on improving back-end functionality, workflows and analytics more so than enhancing the front-end user search experience, which has been hampered by inconsistent metadata and API restrictions by publishers. Publishers have more financial incentive to work with Amazon than they do with library vendors.
  80. The term “Grand Narrative” was introduced by Jean-François Lyotard in The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, in which he critiqued all forms of institutional and ideological forms of knowledge. Social scientists have used this concept to refer to an underlying ideological belief which provides societal legitimization to certain forms of knowledge over others.

    Historically, the value of libraries was tied into other, larger legitimizing values—democracy (the need for an informed citizenry), cultivating the habit of life-long learning; a European model of higher education where students are expected to function as independent scholars and investigators, taking greater responsibility for their own education (therefore needing access to a research library) as they moved up the ladder of higher education, rather than remaining passive consumers of instruction.

  81. According to Welsh and Metcalf, “The term ‘institutional effectiveness,’ promulgated by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, is interchangeable with a number of monikers for continuous improvement processes, such as ‘quality assurance’ and ‘quality enhancement.’ The specific initiatives included under these rubrics typically encompass activities such as student outcomes assessment, academic program review, strategic planning, performance scorecards, performance bench-marking, and quality measurement, each of which has numerous manifestations in academia. Despite variations in terminology, colleges and universities accredited by any one of the six regional accrediting agencies must demonstrate that they have designed and implemented acceptable processes of institutional effectiveness.” Welsh, John F., and Jeff Metcalf. “Faculty and Administrative Support for Institutional Effectiveness Activities: A Bridge across the Chasm?” The Journal of Higher Education 74.4 (2003): 445-68. Web.
  82. Lindauer, B. G. (1998, November). Defining and Measuring the Library’s Impact on Campuswide Outcomes. College & Research Libraries, 59(6), 546-570.
  83. The 2011 standard was revised in 2018.
  84. ACRL SLHE, Introduction,
  85. ACRL SLHE, Section 1.1 says: The library defines and measures outcomes in the context of institutional mission. 1.2 The library develops outcomes that are aligned with institutional, departmental, and student affairs outcomes. 1.3 The library develops outcomes that are aligned with accreditation guidelines for the institution. 1.4 The library develops and maintains a body of evidence that demonstrates its impact in convincing ways. 1.5 The library articulates how it contributes to student learning, collects evidence, documents successes, shares results, and makes improvements. 1.6 The library contributes to student recruitment, retention, time to degree, and academic success. 1.7 The library communicates with the campus community to highlight its value in the educational mission and in institutional effectiveness.
  86. Hernon, Peter, and Robert E. Dugan. Outcomes Assessment in Your Library. Chicago: American Library Association, 2002, p. 11
  87. LRCs provide remedial tutoring, curriculum resources (textbooks, study guides, and sufficient resources for student research papers), instructional media, collaborative study spaces, and computers. Their purpose is to assist students with the completion of course assignments and the mastery of specific concepts and skills–the achievement of “student learning objectives” tied to the curriculum. They are often associated with remedial, vocational and technical training, or the first year experience. See for example, Notre Dame’s LRC: Compared to libraries, it is much easier for LRCs to demonstrate student “impact” with a lot less overhead. Although both libraries and LRCs provide resources to students, they have very different missions. Cost effectiveness and close alignment with institutional objectives are reasons why LRCs are encroaching upon, or altogether replacing, the academic research library at schools which serve large populations of academically unprepared students.
  89. Berg, Maggie, and Barbara K. Seeber. The Slow Professor: Challenging the Culture of Speed in the Academy. Toronto: U of Toronto, 2016. Print.
  90. Ginsberg, Benjamin. The Fall of the Faculty: the Rise of the All-Administrative University and Why It Matters. Oxford: Oxford U Press, 2011. Print.
  91. Gerber, Larry G. The Rise and Decline of Faculty Governance: Professionalization and the Modern American University. Baltimore: John Hopkins U Press, 2014. Print.
  92. From
  93. The ACRL standards committee was guided by the idea that if we adopted the roles and missions of the institution and other business units, it would serve to “advancing and sustaining their role as partners in educating students.”
  94. For three years, my university experimented with incorporating formal information literacy instruction into the freshman experience, including the administration of pre- and post SAILs tests; but the impact of these efforts could not be correlated to improved completion rates or higher GPAs. It was my observation that showing students how to use the library’s catalog and electronic databases–“library instruction”–was more impactful than the prescribed information literacy curriculum, which exposed students to the concept of Boolean searching, broadening and narrowing topics, using concept maps, avoiding plagiarism, and evaluating information sources found on the Internet. Demonstrating how to use the library to conduct research using our electronic databases was the primary thing students and faculty wanted.
  95. Sarah M. Pritchard, “Determining Quality in Academic Libraries.” Library Trends, 44.3 (1996), 573
  96. Pritchard, 573
  97. Libraries are advised to rewrite their mission statements to reflect and conform with the mission statements of their parent institutions, and set goals accordingly.
  98. Rowena Cullen, “Measure for measure: a post-modern critique of performance measurement in libraries and information services.” Proceedings of the IATUL Conferences. Paper 10. http://doc
  99. Crawford, Gregory A. Developing a Measure of Library Goodness. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 11:3 (2016): 117,
  100. SACS, the accrediting agency for many southern colleges and schools, pioneered these techniques, and also developed more rigorous assessment and rule-based approaches than other institutional accrediting bodies. See Welsh and Metcalf.
  101. Dugan, Robert E., and Peter Hernon. “Outcomes Assessment: Not Synonymous with Inputs and Outputs.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 28.6 (2002): 376-380.
  102. Carr, Patrick L. “Serendipity in the Stacks: Libraries, Information Architecture, and the Problems of Accidental Discovery.” College & Research Libraries 76.6 (2015): 831-842.
  103. Larry, N. W. (2007). Unseen measures: The need to account for intangibles. The Bottom Line, 20(2), 77-84. doi:
  104. ACRL, SLHE, Introduction, “Accreditation language, trends, and contexts also inform the Standards. Academic library directors surveyed by the standards task force in spring 2010 stressed the importance of relating library standards to accreditation criteria. Accreditation agency library reviewers were asked by the task force to identify characteristics of library strength and weakness within the context of institutional accreditation. The task force also reviewed guidelines from each regional accrediting agency and extracted concepts and specific language (i.e., outcomes-based language, and terminology such as “sufficient” and “effective”). Trends in the accreditation process affecting libraries include an emphasis on using assessment results for continuous improvement; full library integration into the academic endeavor; a move away from a separate library standard within the overall accreditation standard; a focus on outcomes and bench-marking; recognition of information literacy as the catalyst for the library’s educational role; the library’s support of all student learning outcomes, not just those overtly library-related; an alignment of library and institutional missions; and a need for multiple forms of assessment and documentation.”
  105. Elmborg, James. “Tending The Garden of Learning: Lifelong Learning as Core Library Value.” Library Trends 64.3 (2016): 533-555
  106. Elmborg 553-4
  107. Bangert, Stephanie Rogers. “Thinking Boldly! College and University Library Mission Statements as Roadsigns to the Future.” American Library Association, September 29, 2006. Document ID: 1497510b-f35b-3224-5d15-5453a6cea87d
  108. Blog post. Retrieved May 3, 2014.

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